Author: Maciej Cesarz
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 284–301
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/47-2/ppsy2018209.pdf

This article explores the formal impact of various citizenships and travel documents held by Palestinians on their freedom to engage in international travel. Based on a theoretical analysis of passports and the global visa regime, it claims that international recognition is not only pre-requisite of statehood but also affects the scope of mobility in cases of citizens of de facto states, including the Palestinian Authority. The research is focused on the following themes: the status of the population holding a Palestinian Authority Passport in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in comparison to Palestinians who are citizens of Israel and carry passports of this state, the exceptional situation of East Jerusalemites as well as the case of Palestinians with Jordanian passports. Visa availability and other formal barriers for international travel are also examined. The argumentation is supported by the analysis of visa restriction indexes referring to the Palestinian Authority and to Israel. The article concludes that the mobility of Palestinians varies to a large extent depending on travel documents held and the recognition of a citizenship and the passport that comes with it is strictly dependent of the recognition of state sovereignty. Although in some cases citizenship can be divorced from the international recognition, the scope of visa-free mobility related to passports is always impaired.


  • Alsaafin, L., (2017). “The colour-coded Israeli ID system for Palestinians”. Aljazeera. Retrieved from: 
  • Alqasis. A. (2012). “Israel’s Discriminatory Laws. Summary Version”. BADIL Occasional Bulletin 26. Retrieved from:
  • Altschul, M., (2002). “Israel’s Law of Return and the Debate of Altering, Repealing or Maintaining its Present Language”. University of Illinois Law Review 5, p.1345-1372.
  • Anderson, M., (2000). “The transformation of border controls: A European precedent?”,. In P. Andreas & T. Snyder (Eds.). The wall around the West – state borders and immigration controls in North America and Europe (pp. 15-29). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Baker A., (2015). “State of Palestine” Passports? Another Violation of the Oslo Accords”. Retrieved from:
  • Brubaker, R., (1992). Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Caplan, J., & Torpey, J. (2001). Documenting individual identity. The development of state practices in the modern world. Princetown, New Jersey: Princetown University Press.
  • Cohen, D., (2017). “Stateless Palestinians in the United States”. DC Law Offices. Immigration and Relocation. Retrieved from:
  • Collinson, S. (1996). “Visa Requirements, Carrier Sanctions, 'Safe Third Countries' and 'Readmission': The Development of an Asylum 'Buffer Zone' in Europe”. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 21 (1), pp. 76-90.
  • Cuttitta, P., (2015). “Territorial and Non-territorial: the Mobile Borders of Migration Controls”. In : A. L., Amilhat-Szary & F. Giraut (Eds.), Borderities, the mobile border hypothesis. Towards a post-modern conceptualization of space and borders (pp. 241-255). Basingstoke: Palgrave-McMillan.
  • Czaika, M., Neumayer, E., (2017). “Visa restrictions and economic globalisation”. Applied Geography 84, pp.75-82.
  • Del Sarto, R. A., (2015). “Visa Regimes and the Movement of People across the EU and Israel-Palestine”. In R.A. Del Sarto (Eds.), Fragmented Borders, Interdependence and External Relations. The Israel-Palestine-European Union Triangle (pp.48-67), Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Finck, F., (2016). “The State between Fact and Law: The Role of Recognition and the Conditions Under Which it is Granted in the Creation of New States”. Polish Yearbook of International Law 36, pp. 51-81.
  • Finotelli, C. & Sciortino G., (2013). “Through the Gates of the Fortress: European Visa Policies and the Limits of Immigration Control”. Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 14 (3), pp. 500-521.
  • Ganohariti, R., (2017). “Human security and citizenship in de facto states”. Diplomacy and Global Affairs. Retrieved from:
  • Gervits, E., (2016). Israel: “Acquisition of Citizenship, Two Types of Passport, and Tax Implications”. Retrieved from:
  • Guild, E., (2001). “Moving the borders of Europe”. Publicaties Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid no. 14, KU Nijmegen. Retrieved from:
  • Hobolth, M. (2014). “Researching mobility barriers: The European visa database”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(3), pp.424–435.
  • International Air Transport Association (IATA) (2018). Retrieved from:
  • International Organization for Migration (IOM), “Passport and Visa Systems”. Retrieved from:
  • Lopez-Sala, A., Godenau D., (2016). “Integrated Border Management and Irregular Migration at the South European-North African Border: The Case of Spain”. In R., Bossong & H., Carrapico (Eds.), EU Borders and Shifting Internal Security. Technology, Externalization and Accountability, p. 81-101. Springer.
  • Luedtke, A., Byrd, D.G., Alexander, K.P., (2010). “The Politics of Visas”. Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, 11, p.147-160.
  • Macklin, A., (2015), Kick-off contribution. In: A.,Macklin, R., Bauböck (Eds.), The Return of Banishment: Do the New Denationalisation Policies Weaken Citizenship?” (pp.1-6), EUI Working Paper RSCAS 2015/14.
  • Mau, S., Laube, L., Roos, Ch. & Wrobel S. (2009). “Globalized borders? Selectivity, internationalization, exterritorialization”. Working Paper 82.
  • Mau, S., Gülzau F., Laube L., Zaun N., (2015). “Global Mobility Divide: How Visa Policies Have Evolved over Time”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41 (8), pp. 1192-1213.
  • Mau, S., Brabandt, H., Laube, L., Roos, C. (2012). Liberal States and the Freedom of Movement. Selective Borders, Unequal Mobility. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Moreno-Lax, V., (2017). Accessing Asylum in Europe. Extraterritorial Border Controls and Refugee Rights under EU Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State of Palestine (2015). “President Mahmoud Abbas says new passports will refer to Palestinian state”. Retrieved from:
  • Neumayer, E., (2005). “Unequal access to foreign spaces: how states use visa restrictions to regulate mobility in a globalised world”. Global Migration Perspectives, No. 43 (September), pp.72-84.
  • Passport Index, (2018). Retrieved from:
  • Salter, M., (2006). “The global visa regime and the political technologies of the international self: Borders, bodies, biopolitics’”. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 31(2), pp. 167–189.
  • Salter, M., (2012). “Thing-power-politics: the passport as an object of global circulation”. Retrieved from:
  • Shiblak A.,(2006). “Stateless Palestinians. A case apart?”. Forced Migration Review, 26. Retrieved from:
  • The Henley & Partners, (2018). “Visa Restrictions Index 2017”. Retrieved from:
  • Times of Israel, (2016).“Israel almost entirely halts citizenship approvals for East Jerusalemites”. 26 September. Retrieved from:
  • Times of Israel, (2017). “More East Jerusalem Palestinians seek Israeli citizenship, Times of Israel”. 22 March. Retrieved from:
  • Torpey, J., (2000). The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Turner, B., S., (2007). “The Enclave Society: Towards a Sociology of Immobility”. European Journal of Social Theory, 10 (2), pp. 287–303.
  • UNHCR, (2015). “Palestine and Jordan: Passports issued to stateless Palestinians by the government of Jordan, including procedures, entitlements differences between Jordanian passports issued to Jordanian nationals and those issued to stateless Palestinians; passports issued to Palestinians by the Palestinian Authority, including requirements and procedures, and entitlements”. Retrieved from:
  • UNHCR, (1998). “Palestine/Occupied Territories: Information on passports issued by the Palestine National Authority”. Retrieved from:
  • Wang, H., (2004). “Regulating Transnational Flows of People: An Institutional Analysis of Passports and Visas as a Regime of Mobility”. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 11(3), pp.351-376.
  • Zampagni, F., (2012). “Who moves? Schengen Visa Policy and Implementation in Consulates. A fieldwork study from the Embassy of Italy in Senegal” (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from:


Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart