Author: Inga B. Kuźma
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Author: Edyta Pietrzak
Institution: Łódź University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 49-64
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019103.pdf

The article deals with the subject of relations between theories of violence and the category of collective memory in relation to women’s war stories. The text introduces the issue of war and conflict, understanding the theory of violence, the category of collective memory and female war narratives, as well as the ways of their political interpretation. The interpretation is crucial because of method used in the research, meaning hermeneutics, but also because of the, presented here, perspective of polyphony.


  • Allen, B. (1996). Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Alexievich, S. (2017). The Unwomanly Face of War: An Oral History of Women in World War II. Penguin Books.
  • Baer, M. (2014). Between science and activism. On politics, gender and anthropology. Wrocław: Faculty of Historical and Pedagogical Sciences, University of Wroclaw. Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology.
  • Bratek, A. (2009). War riots as a manifestation of violence against women on the example of the Balkan Wars. Retrieved from:
  • Bartuś A. (2014). Od redakcji. Pp. 7–10. In A. Bartuś (Ed.). Kobiety i wojny. Między zbrodnią a krzykiem o godność. , Oświęcim.
  • Brewer, J.D. (2016). “The ethics of ethical debates in peace and conflict. Methodological Innovations. 9. pp. 1–11.
  • Durand, G. (1986). Symbolic imagination, Warsaw: PWN.
  • Felman, S. & Laub, D. (1992). Testimony: Crises in Witnessing in Literature. New York: Routledge.
  • Grabowska M., Grzybek A. (Ed.). (2016). Break the taboo. Report on sexual violence. Warsaw: Foundation for Equality and Emancipation STER.
  • Halbwachs, M. (2008). Social framework of memory. Warsaw: PWN.
  • Hilberg, R. (2007), Perpetrators – victims – witnesses, Warsaw: Center for Holocaust Studies, Cyklady Publishing House.
  • Hossain, A. (2016). “Why is the mass sexual violence that occurred during the Bangladesh independence war constantly ignored?” Feminoteka. Retrieved from:
  • Janicka, E. (2011). Festung Warschau, Warsaw: Krytyka Polityczna Publishing House.
  • Janion, M. (1996). Women and the spirit of otherness. Warsaw: Sic Publishing House.
  • Jarmoszko S. (2018). O zjawisku i strategiach humanizowania wojny – ujęcie antropologiczne. pp. 209–242. In: M. Kubiak & R. Wróblewski (Eds.). Oblicza współczesnych wojen / Warsaw, Siedlce: Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA-JR, Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach.
  • Kaniowska, K. (2003). “Anthropology and the problem of memory”. Polish Folk Art – Contexts. 3–4. pp. 57–65. Retrieved from:
  • Konarski, M. (2007). Rape cheaper than bullets. Retrieved from:
  • Kralowa, A. (2012). Soviet women in fight. History of violence on the Eastern Front. Zakrzewo: Replica.
  • Münkler, H. (2004). Wars of our time. Cracov: WAM Publishing.
  • Neuman, E. (1987). Die Grosse Mutter Eine Phänomenologie der weiblichen Gestaltungen des Unbewussten, 11 edition (1 1956). Olten / Düsseldorf: Walter.
  • Norra, P. (ed.) (1998). Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. 3. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Nowak, J. (2011). Social rules of remembering. Anthropology of collective memory. Cracov: Nomos.
  • Ostrowska, J. (2018). Seksualna praca przymuswa w czasie II wojny światowej. Marginesy: Warsaw.
  • Pawłowski, M. (2009). Sexual violence as a military doctrine. Retrieved from:
  • Perrot, M. (1980). “De Marianne à Lulu. Les imagines de la femme.” Le Débat. No. 3, juillet-août.
  • Pokruszyński, W. (2017). Theory and practice. (Second Edition). Krakow: Higher School of Public and Individual Security “Apeiron” in Cracov.
  • Puar, J.K. & Rai, S.A. (2003). “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots”. Social Text 3, pp. 117–148.
  • Violence against women. Study at the level of the European Union. The results of the study at a glance (2014). Luxembourg: FRA – European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Publications Office of the European Union.
  • Röger, M. & Leiserowitz, R. (2012). Women and Men at War. A Gender Perspective on World War II and its Aftermath in Central and Eastern Europe. Osnabrük: Deutsches Historisches Institut.
  • Sajewska, D. (2015). “Body – memory, body – archive”. Didaskalia. 127–128, pp. 48–56.
  • Saryusz-Wolska, M. (Ed.). (2009). Collective and cultural memory. Contemporary German perspective. Cracov: Universitas.
  • Smith, S. & Watson J. (2012). Introduction: concepts of subjectivity in women’s autobiographical practices. In A. Gajewska, (Ed.) Subversive theories. Anthology of translations. Poznań: Poznań Publisher. Original edition: Smith, S. & Watson J. (1998). Introduction: Situating Subjectivity in Women’s Autobiographical practices, in: Women Autobiography, Theory: A Reader, Smith, S. & Watson J. (Eds.) Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Songin, M. (2010). “The ethical dimension of the anthropological meeting in the light of engaged anthropol­ogy”. Łódzkie Studia Etnograficzne. 49 pp. 69–86.
  • Szacka, B. (2006). Past tense – memory – myth. Warsaw: Publisher of ISP PAN.
  • Turpin J. (1998). “Many Faces: Women Confronting War”. In A. Lorentzen & J. Turpin. The Women and War Reader. pp. 3–18. New York – London: New York University Press.
  • West, J. (2004–2005). “Feminist IR and the Case of ‘Black Widows’: Reproducing Gender Divisions”. In­novations: A Journal of Politics. 5. pp 1–16.
  • “War and occupation in Poland from the perspective of the history of women and gender. What and how to research? Discussion with: Joanna Hrytek-Hryciuk, Natalia Jarska, Dobrochna Kałwa and Joanna Urbanek”. (2015). Pamięć i Sprawiedliwość. 14. 2. 26, pp. 13–26.
  • Women War and Peace Resource and Research Book. Retrieved from:
  • Young J.E. (2004). “Holocaust in film testimonies and video certificates. Documenting a witness”. Literature in the world. 1–2 (390–391), pp. 245–266.
  • Yuval-Davis, N. (2010). “Women and the Biological Reproduction of The Nation” Gender & Nation. Los Angeles: Sage [1997], pp. 26–38.

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart