The Lithuanian historiography is not a novelty in Polish academic literature. The attempts undertaken many times by historians to examine the Lithuanian past are fully justied by the common history of the Polish and Lithuanian lands. It is worth stressing that there are still many controversial questions in this area, which have not been answered in both Lithuanian and Polish academic circles. Taking into account the basic facts from Lithuanian history in the 20th century, when Lithuanians undertook the first actions towards developing a state which would be offcially recognized by the international community, it should not be surprising that it is a subject frequently discussed by the newest studies, which continually refer to the equally rich literature of the earlier period. The researchers ascribe considerable signi!cance to the circumstances, in which the independent Lithuanian state came into being and to its functioning in the interwar period, in years 1918–1940 . What also had a strong influence on this process were the following events in the history of the state, when Lithuania was in the end incorporated into the Soviet Union.