Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
Institution: War Studies University
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 127-139
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020207.pdf

Today countries participating in space activities, share serious concerns about militarization of space. The defense of space can become an important issue in the international arena, because counteracting emerging threats will probably be associated not only with the development of technology and operational capabilities, but also with the creation of political alliances or attempts at international agreement on certain “rules of the game” for space operations. Ultimately, the growing importance of “space for defense” creates the need for “defense of space”. Individual countries remain the main actors in the field of space defense. Military strategies are defined at national level, and the development and exploitation of military space assets are managed by national organizations. Today, most European countries recognize space as a strategic area, next to land, sea, air and, increasingly, cyberspace, but they have adopted different policies and doctrines depending on their sensitivity, priorities and concerns. European space forces also have different governance structures with significant differences in the distribution of roles and responsibilities, including space agencies and private entities.


  • Bowen, B. (2020). “British Spacepower: Context, Policies, and Capabilities”. In K.U. Schrőgl (ed.), Handbook on Space Security (3). DOI:–3-030–22786–9.
  • Bundesministerium der Verteidigung. (2017). BMVgBundesministerium der Verteidigung legt „Strategische Leitlinie Weltraum” fest. Retrieved from:
  • Bundesministerium der Verteidigung. (2020). Organisationsplan BMVg. Retrieved from: https://www.bmvg. de/resource/blob/11902/86f5adb4c371e5b3f8003a4f1f57809e/a-03-download-organigramm-data.pdf.
  • Cabinet Office. (2016). Summary of the 2015–16 Sector Resilience Plans. Retrieved from:­ summary_of_the_srp.pdf.
  • Campbell, K.M. (1991–1992). “The U.S.-Soviet Agreement on the Prevention of Dangerous Military Activities”. Security Studies, 1(1). DOI:
  • Chanock, A. (2013). “The problems and potential solutions related to the emergence of Space Weapons in the 21st Century”. JALC, 78(4).
  • (2020). Europe, Space and Defense, From “Space for Defence” to “Defence of Space”. Retrieved from:
  • (2014). Decision No 541/2014/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 establishing a Framework for Space Surveillance and Tracking Support), 27.5.2014, L 158/227).
  • (2019). SOS SOS SOS: EU calls for ethical conduct in space to avoid collision and orbital debris. Retrieved from:
  • European Commission. (2019). European Defence Fund. Retrieved from: news/european-defence-fund-2019-mar-19_en.
  • Fuller, T. (2017). “Measuring space debris risk”. Room, The Space Journal, 3(13).
  • Global Regulation. (2015). Law 36/2015, 28 September, National Security. Retrieved from: https://www.–2015%252c-28-september%252c-national-security.html.
  • (2016). White Paper on German Security Policy and the Future of the Bundeswehr. Retrieved from:
  • Hart, B.L. (2007). Anti-satellite weapons, threats, laws and the uncertain future of Space. Montreal: McGill University.
  • (2005). Helios 2A, déclencheur de la défense spatiale européenne. Retrieved from: https://www.
  • Meyer, P. (2016). “Prospects for progress on space security diplomacy”. Room, The Space Journal, 4(10).
  • Milik, P. (2016). “Rules for the transfer of weapons and military technology in the light of contemporary international law”. Security and Defence Quarterly, 13(4), 50–78. DOI: sdq/103233.
  • Ministerio de Defensa. (2015). Plan Director de Sistemas Espaciales. Retrieved from: http://www.defensa.
  • (2019). NATO Defence Ministers approve new space policy, discuss readiness and mission in Afghani­stan. Retrieved from:
  • Onley, R.D. (2013). “Death from above? The weaponization of space and the threat to International Hu­manitarian Law”. JALC, 78(4).
  • Polkowska, M. (2019a). “NATO and Space Security”. In D. Kawa (Ed.), International Security and State borders. Toruń: Adam Marszałek Publishing House.
  • Polkowska, M. (2019b). “Space Situational Awareness (SSA) for Providing Safety and Security in Outer Space: Implementation Challenges for Europe 2019”. Space Policy Journal. DOI: spacepol.2019.101347.
  • (2019). Poland has joined the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Consortium established to track space debris. Retrieved from:
  • Presidencia del Goberino. (2013). The National Security Strategy. Retrieved from: http://www.lamoncloa.
  • Rendleman, J.D. (2013). “Brave New World of Hosted payloads”. JSL, 39(1).
  • (2019). UK Ministry of Defence Announces Ambitious Plans for Space. Retrieved from: https://rusi. org/commentary/uk-ministry-defence-announces-ambitious-plans-space.
  • Space Defense Strategy 2019. (2019). Retrieved from: .
  • Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (1967), Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (1968), Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (1972), Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (1979). Retrieved from:
  • UK Government. (2013). UK air and space power (JDP 0–30). Retrieved from:­ment/publications/uk-air-and-space-doctrine-jdp-0–30.
  • UK Government. (2015). National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015. Retrieved from:
  • UK Government. (2018). Modernising Defence Programme – Update. Retrieved from: government/speeches/modernising-defence-programme-update.
  • UN Charter. (1945). 51. Retrieved from:

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart