Author: Tunde Abioro
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria)
Author: Omolara Akinyemi
Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife (Nigeria)
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 87-104
DOI Address:
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020406.pdf

Modern governments in modern states in third world countries are overwhelmed with social circumstances that have forced citizens to resort to self-help. Also, prevalent unclear demographic and globalization issues are sometimes neutral lines of justification for either transit or destination posture of the West African states. Concisely, poverty issues have continuously permeated the West Africa region’s fabric, and the challenges seem protracting. It has implications for mobility, (women) trafficking, and human security, among others. The quantitative approach adopted profiled index while evaluating and descriptive methods explained the content. Among other findings, lack of national data and proper immigration service is obvious. Thus, adequate data for national planning is recommended. Further, ongoing regional and national initiatives for possible integration and collaboration to address challenges are advocated.


  • Adepoju, A. (2005). “Review of Research and Data on Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa”. International Migration Publications, 43, 1-2.
  • Akihiko, T. (2015). “Toward a Theory of Human Security”. JICA-Research Institute Working Paper Series, 91.
  • Akinterinwa, B. (2019). Security, Human Trafficking and International Law: The Conflict between National Interest and Inhumanity. Retrieved from:
  • Allais, C. (2006). An Overview of Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from:
  • Alemika, E. (2013). The Impact of Organized Crime on Governance in West Africa. “Report”.
  • Allais, C. (2006). An Overview of Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa. Join Area Center Annual Symposium. February 23-25.
  • Amnesty International. (2006). Childhood Denied: Child Soldiers in Africa. Retrieved from:
  • Aning, K., Sampson, K., John, P. (2013). Getting Smart and Scaling Up: The Impact of Organized Crimes on Governance in Developing Countries - A Case Study of Ghana “Report”. New York: New York University Centre on International Cooperation.
  • Annan, K. (2012). The Impact of Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking on Governance, Development and Security in West Africa. Report of the Experts Meeting held in Dakar, Senegal.
  • Barro, R., Lee, W. (2016). Dataset of Educational Attainment, February 2016. Retrieved from: www.
  • Bashir, U. (2014). “Human Trafficking in South Asia: Issues of Corruption and Human Security”. International Journal of Social Work and Human Services Practice, 2(1), 18-27.
  • Bedeski, R. (2000). Human Security Knowledge and the Evolution of the North East Asian State, Centre for Global Studies. Retrieved from:
  • Brewer, D. (2008). Globalization and Human Trafficking in Human Rights and Human Trafficking. Denver: Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver.
  • Chapsos, I. (2011). The Human Security and International Organized Crime Nexus: The Balkan Route. Research Institute for European and American Studies.
  • Clayton, J. (2004). “Cursed girls of the slave trade”. ThisDay. April 19.
  • CTED (2019). Identifying and Exploring the Nexus between Human Trafficking, Terrorism and Terrorism Financing. United Nations Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate.
  • Davidson, B. (1998). West Africa before the Colonial Era: A History to 1850. London: Longman.
  • Dechery, C., Ralston, L. (2015). Trafficking and Fragility in West Africa. Washington DC: World Bank
  • Economic Community of West Africa States. (2001). ECOWAS Plan of Action against Trafficking in
  • Persons (2002-2003).
  • ECPAT International. (2004). Frequently Asked Questions about CSEC: Trafficking in Children. Retrieved from:
  • Ehikioya, A. (2017). Buhari Tasks ECOWAS Leaders on Terrorism, Human, Drug Trafficking, Sahara Reporters. Retrieved from:
  • Ellerman, D. (2002). Trafficking of Woman and Children in the United States of America. Retrieved from:
  • Eye on Human Trafficking. (2005). “Nigeria: Aerial patrol to combat child trafficking”. Pretoria: IOM, 6.
  • Federal Republic of Ghana. (2017). National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana 2017-2021. Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Protection.
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2015). Official Gazette. Act No. 4, 93-145.
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2019). NAPTIP, Fact sheet.
  • French Press Agency. (2017). 500 Victims of Human Trafficking rescued in West Africa, Interpol Says. Retrieved from:
  • GAATW. (2010). “Beyond Borders: Exploring the Links between Trafficking, Globalization and Security”. Global Alliance against Traffic in Women Working Papers Series 2010.
  • Gómez, O.A., Gasper, D. (2014). Human Security: A Thematic Guidance Note for Regional and National Human Development Report Teams. United Nations Development Program Human Development Report Office. Presented at the Joint Area Centers Annual Symposium: Criminal Trafficking and Slavery: the dark side of global and regional migration, February 23-25, 2006. Champaign, Illinois.
  • Human Rights Watch. (2003). Borderline slavery: Child trafficking in Togo. New York: Human Rights Watch.
  • Hussien, K., Gnisci, D., Wanjuri, J. (2014). Security and Human Security: An Overview of Concepts and Initiatives - What Implications for West Africa. OECD, Sahel and West Africa Club
  • International Labor Organization. (2018). ILOSTAT database. Retrieved from: www.ilostat.
  • International Organization for Migration. (2019). World Migration Report: Migration, Dialogue for
  • West Africa (MIDWA).
  • Inter-Parliamentary Union. (2018). Women in National Parliaments. Retrieved from: classif-arc.htm.
  • Keefer, S.L. (2006). Human Trafficking and the Impact on National Security for the United States. USAWC Strategy Research Project.
  • Marinko, B. (2014). “Transnational organized crime and terrorism: Nexus needing a human security framework”. Global Crime, 15(3-4), 241-258.
  • Mossbarger, D. (2008). Corruption and Crime in the East: Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in Russia and Ukraine in Human Rights and Human Trafficking. Denver: Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver.
  • Olukoshi, A. (2013). Drug Trafficking and its Impact on Governance in West Africa. Accra: KofiAnnan Foundation.
  • Paris, R. (2001). “Human Security: Paradigm Shiftor Hot Air?”. International Security, 26(2), 87-102.
  • Peulić, D. (2017). “Human Trafficking: A Threat to State Security and Human Security”. Bezbjednost, Policija, Građani, 13(1), 69-79.
  • Relief Web. (2006). The Use of Children as Soldiers in Africa: A Country Analysis of Child Recruitment and Participation in Armed Conflict. Retrieved from:
  • Rousseau, R. (2017). “West Africa - The Region’s Pivotal Role in International Drug Trafficking”. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 20(4), 19-32.
  • Ruby, A. (2012). Anti-Trafficking Legislation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Analyzing the Role of Coercion and Parental Responsibility. Fourth Annual Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking.
  • Sawadogo, W.R. (2012). “The Challenges of Transnational Human Trafficking in West Africa”. African Studies Quarterly, 13(1&2).
  • Ships & Ports. (2017). Interpol Arrests 40 Suspects, Rescues 500 victims of Human Trafficking in West Africa. Retrieved from:
  • Sukma, R. (2008). “The Securitization of Human Trafficking in Indonesia”. S. Rajanatnam School of International Affairs, 162.
  • Trajano, J.C. (2018). “Combating Human Trafficking in East Asia: Mind the Gaps”. NTS Insight, 18-05.
  • UNDP. (1994). Human Development Report 1994. Oxford University Press.
  • UNITAR. (2015). Human Trafficking and the Role of Local Government: Good Practices, Challenges
  • and Way Forward, The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).
  • United Nations Children’s Fund - Ghana. (2017). National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Human Trafficking in Ghana.
  • United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2001). Child Trafficking in West and Central Africa. UNICEF, West and Central Africa Regional Office, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
  • United Nations Development of Economic and Social Affairs. (2017). World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision. Retrieved from:
  • United Nations Development Programme. (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update.
  • United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report-Data. (2015). Retrieved from: http://hdr.undp-org/en/data.
  • United Nations Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, United Nations Population Fund and World Bank. (2017). Maternal Mortality data. Retrieved from:
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC). (2005). Crime and Development in Africa.
  • UNODC. (2018). Sub-Saharan Africa, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes.
  • UNODC. (2019). Tackling Human Trafficking in West Africa: UNODC and the Story of Anna and Precious. Retrieved from:
  • UNODC. (2009). Transnational Trafficking and the Rule of Law in West Africa: A Threat Assessment. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
  • World Bank. (2018). World Development Indicators database. Retrieved from:

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart