The cycle of individual and communal lives from birth to death is supposedly preserved by the government through institutions. However, political, social, and economic activities are engaged to make ends meet wherein the government is to serve as an unbiased regulator. The activities that play out in Southern Kaduna reflected politics of being on one side with interplay on origin, identity, religion, and locality. On the other hand, it reflects politics of belonging that play on kin, reciprocity, and stranger status. It has thus resulted in violence, suspicion, and persistent conflict. The study examines citizen’s inclusiveness in peacebuilding initiatives and the people’s perception of the sincerity of the government. The research relies on secondary sources where governmental and non-governmental publications and documents from relevant and reliable sources enriched the socio-historical approach, particularly those relating to contestation in the region. The study found out that just like situations in the other northwest states of the country, the crisis exacerbates by the government’s inability to mediate fairly between warring parties to ensure fairness and justice as well as failure to apprehend and punish the culprits, even as recommendations from the various interventions were unimplemented. Thus, the spate of violence continues.
- Abdulbarkindo, A., Alupsen B., and Gloria, C. (2018). Nigeria: Southern Kaduna and the atrocities of Hausa-Fulani Muslim herdsmen (May 2016 – September 2017) Volume 1. Open Doors International / World Watch Research Unit, Working Paper, 6, 1-35.
- Abioro, T. (2016). Politics of Inter Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Case of Jos, Plateau State Revisited, Review of Nigerian Political Economy. Journal of the Department of Political Science and International Relations, 5(1&2), 29-41.
- Agagu, A. (2010). Public Policy Instability and Political Instability in Nigeria. The University of Ado-Ekiti Press, 23rd Inaugural Lecture.
- Bonnat, Z. (2012, June 24). Contemporary ethnic and Religious Crises in Kaduna State. Vanguard Newspaper. vanguardnewpaper.com
- Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. (2016). The Kafanchan Peace Declaration. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue: Mediation for Peace.
- Gabriel, J. (2019, April 16). Kajuru killings: High Court Judge Heads Commission of Inquiry. Daily Post Nigeria. https://dailypost.ng/2019/04/16/kajuru-killings-high-court-judge-heads-commission-inquiry/
- Garson, G. (1978). Group Theories of Politics. Sage Publication.
- Garson, G. (2007). Group Theories of Politics. Sage Publication.
- Gudaku, B. (2017, August 8). Historical Background to Contemporary Violent Conflicts in Southern Kaduna and Review of Past Reports on Violent Conflicts in the Area. The Kukah Centre (TKC) and Nigerian Social Responsibility Programme (NSRP) Workshop in Kaduna.
- Johns, E. (2017, June 13). Domestic Aliens: The Zangon Kataf Crisis and the African Concept of Stranger. International Research Group for Transregional & Emerging Area Studies. Http://iteas.net/domestic-aliens-the-zangon-kataf-crisisand-the-african-concept-of-stranger/
- (2017). From the Valley of Death: Memory, Healing and Inter-group dialogue in Southern Kaduna.
- Lamidi, K.O. (2019). Peace Building: Conceptual, Trajectory and Imperative Analyses in the Third World Countries. Canadian Social Sciences, 53-64.
- Luka, B. (2016). Inside Zango-Kataf chiefdom, 24 years after killings in natives’ battle with Hausa-Fulani settlers. Vanguard Nigeria. https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/11/inside-zango-katafchiefdom-24-years-killings-natives-battle-hausa-fulanisettlers/
- Luka, B. (2017, January 15). Southern Kaduna Crisis Making Sense of Claims and Counterclaims. Vanguard Newspaper.
- Omotoso, F. (2010). Federalism, Politics and Governance in Nigeria. In F. Omotoso, A. Agagu, and O. Abegunde (Eds.), Governance, Politics and Policies in Nigeria: An Essay in Honour of Professor Dipo Kolawole: Benin Editions Sonou D’Afrique.
- Uroko, F.C. (2018). Readdressing the Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria in the Light of Abraham-Lot Narrative (Genesis 13:1-18). UJAH, 19(2), 25-43. http://dx.doi./org/10.4314/ujah.v19i2.2