Author: Jan Pabisiak
E-mail: jpabisiak@diplomacy.pl
Institution: University of Wrocław, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6102-4389
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 30-53
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020303
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020303.pdf

Streszczenie:

Since 2015, the Social Credit System - an initiative of the government of the People’s Republic of China which aims to strengthen trustworthiness of the business entities and citizens, promote obedience to law and customs, and develop the Communist Party of China’s control over social trends and potential threats to the political stability - has been attracting worldwide attention. International media portrays the System as a mechanism which leads China to totalitarianism and destroys hope for development of the Chinese democratic movement. Therefore, interests of both sides, the West and China, are seen as contradictory. Harmful beliefs like the one that Chinese still export products of poor quality and on the Chinese side that the Western ideals lead to demoralization are common thanks to some sort of Occidental and Oriental propaganda. That is why it is necessary to compile and analyze the known facts regarding the Social Credit System, which in contrast to the media narration turns out to be a tool with interesting capabilities, not necessarily contradictory to the other major civilizations’ values.

scoring blacklist Reputation trustworthiness surveillance Social Credit System China

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Author: Karolina Pawlik
E-mail: karolinapawlik88@gmail.com
Institution: USC-SJTU Institute of Cultural and Creative Industry
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1847-9174
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 54-74
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020304
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020304.pdf

Streszczenie:

This paper explores the complex connection between heritage, light and power in Shanghai since the late 19th Century, and seeks a new understanding of how mutually coupled legacies of modernity, socialism and cosmopolitanism continue to shape this city’s unique identity and image. It focuses on the recent ideological remake of the skyline along the Huangpu River, achieved largely through the flamboyant illumination designed in 2018. Combining a number of visual and textual sources with fieldwork, it reveals the persistent symbolic role the city has played in a triumphant socialist cause, and assesses how past promises of a new Shanghai and a bright future for China have been sustained in the Reform Era. It forms a preliminary attempt to depict what the author argues should be perceived and studied as the engineering of a new propaganda medium which intersects with urban space governance. The implications of this project are discussed in the context of the threats and opportunities for Shanghai in terms of maintaining the city’s unique character and meaning coming from its own history and culture, rather than in terms of Shanghai simply being a vehicle for China’s modernity.

light modernity Shanghai propaganda urban lighting

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Author: Agnieszka Szpak
E-mail: aszpak@umk.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/000-0001-7601-1230
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 77-95
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020305
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020305.pdf

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The paper concentrates on the right to self-determination of indigenous peoples on the basis of the Nisga’a Nation. The author analyzes the most important provisions of the Nisga’a Final Agreement, in particular those envisaging self-determination of the Nisga’a Nation. Then the author briefly examines the Nisga’a Constitution which may be regarded as a means to implement the Nisga’a Final Agreement. It shows how the Nisga’a selfgovernance model fits into the provisions on self-determination of indigenous peoples. The thesis of this paper is that the Nisga’a self-governance is consonant with international legal standards expressed in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Nisga’a selfgovernment model is much more than just cultural autonomy: it actually amounts to political autonomy. This subject is worth exploring because it may serve as a pattern to be followed with reference to other indigenous peoples, not only in Canada.

self-governance right to self-determination Nisga’a Nation indigenous peoples

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Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 96-110
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

Streszczenie:

Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

militant democracy coronavirus COVID-19 Poland Intermarium pandemic Three Seas

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Author: Tadeusz Bodio
E-mail: tbodio@wp.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8873-7434
Author: Andrzej Wierzbicki
E-mail: awierzbicki@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5493-164X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 111-133
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020307
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020307.pdf

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The article presents the goals, tasks, organization and major stages of implementation of the international programme of research on transformation in the countries Central Asia. The research has been conducted since 1997 by a team of political scientists from the University of Warsaw in cooperation with representatives of other Polish and foreign universities.

post–communism velvet revolutions ethnopolitics political modernization political tradition political transformation Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Tajikistan Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Central Asia Research programme

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Author: Izabela Kapsa
E-mail: izabela.kapsa@ukw.edu.pl
Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2342-3682
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 151-160
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020309
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020309.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article analyzes the relations between political trust - one of the most important values in the life of political communities - and election-related behaviors in the narrow meaning of voting. Researchers investigate the phenomenon of decreasing turnout as one of the expressions of democratic crisis. When studying such a complex problem, it is essential to search for multi-theme causes which might be helpful in understanding the topic and possibly finding a solution for it. The author of this article, while assuming the correctness of analyzes conducted thus far, which indicate that the problem lies in weaker attachment to political parties, less interest in politics and inadequate tools, raises questions whether the decreasing turnout in individual states may be related to the level of trust that citizens put in political institutions and whether there is a relation between these both indicators. In order to answer these questions, the author employs a quantitative analysis of data which derive from reports containing percentage levels of political trust and turnout in the elections, a comparative analysis, as well as an overview of literature on the subject.

voters’ turnout political trust general trust general election e-democracy

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Author: Karol Pachnik
E-mail: karol.pachnik@uph.edu.pl
Institution: Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2311-8522
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 161-170
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020310
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020310.pdf

Streszczenie:

After the local government elections in Poland in 2018, the adopted solutions aimed at increasing the security of the elections were reviewed. Some of the solutions adopted so far have been abandoned, such as transmissions from the polling station, while others have been minimized (the division of the precinct electoral commissions in the precinct electoral commission for voting in the region and the precinct electoral commission for determining the results of voting in the region). In public opinion polls, the National Electoral Commission achieved record of confidence.

National Electoral Commission security of elections elections

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Author: Jaba Urotadze
E-mail: jaba.urotadze@tsu.ge
Institution: Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5567-0595
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 171-185
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020311
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020311.pdf

Streszczenie:

In 2018, a mandatory funded pension model (second pillar) was introduced in Georgia. At present, the Georgian pension system has three pillars, but the reform does not apply to current pensioners. If society does not trust all three pillars, the chances of reversing the pension reform will rise for two reasons. First, the replacement rate from the first pillar (state redistributive pension) is much lower than in any of the OECD member states. Second, for the majority of participants of the second pillar, pension payments will start in 20-25 years’ time. Such a long period creates uncertainty for many about whether long-term economic growth will be achieved, which in turn would make possible an adequate level of retirement income. This paper attempts to identify means of increasing replacement rates for the state redistributive pension and coverage of the voluntary funded third pillar. The research provides recommendations to enhance the Georgian pension system.

pension replacement rate pension pillars pension reform Georgia

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Author: Joanna Rak
E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 189-191
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020312
PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020312.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Daniel Kawa (ed.), International Security and State Borders, Adam Marszałek Publishing House, Toruń 2019, pp. 277

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