Author: Tomasz Łukaszuk
E-mail: t.lukaszuk@uw.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5613-7503
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 105-127
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020407
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020407.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article’s purpose is the multidimensional analysis of the evolution of Australia and India’s maritime policies and their impact on the endeavors to develop their maritime cooperation in the 21st century. Two research questions are to be answered in that connection: what changes and why India and Australia introduced to enhance their maritime security doctrines in the 21st century and why those changes contributed to the more in-depth cooperation in the second decade of the 21st century. The hypothesis based on those questions argues that not only the rise of China but also global processes in maritime affairs - such as the growing number of state and non-state actors, as well as the interdependence between the fields of human activities at sea - pushed the littorals like India and Australia to turn their maritime strength from coastal to oceanic and convinced them too to cooperate. That process was accompanied by the convergence of the security perceptions by both countries (India and Australia) and the mutual understanding of common interests in all the elements of modern maritime security. The Christian Bueger’s matrix serves as an explanatory framework to highlight the dynamics and broader context of the changes in India and Australia’s maritime security doctrines in the 21st century. It provides the conceptual framework for explaining closer cooperation between these two countries. The article analyzes India and Australia’s maritime strategies, focusing on four variables from Bueger’s matrix: national security, economic development, marine environment, and human security. In those dependent variables, particular elements of their activities serving as sub-variables are highlighted: in national security - shaping the seapower; in economic development - Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing; in the marine environment - climate change mitigation; in human security - the fight against piracy and human trafficking. The choice of the mentioned elements is justified by their role in Australia and India’s activities within maritime strategies and their influence on other elements of the maritime security matrix. The article starts with a description of Bueger’s matrix in the context of the evolution of the maritime security concept in international relations. The second part outlines the centrality of the Indian Ocean in Indian and Australian modern military and economic security. The third part explores and explains the roots of Indian maritime security thinking, and the fourth investigates the evolution in Australia’s attitude toward maritime affairs. The final part presents the developments in Indo-Australian bilateral cooperation in the 21st century.

Indian Ocean maritime security sea power blue economy marine environment human resilience

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Jed Lea-Henry
E-mail: jedlea_sh@vignanuniversity.org
Institution: Vignan University (India)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6890-0257
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 131-152
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020408
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020408.pdf

Streszczenie:

Humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) are currently limited and encumbered by a pervasive absence of a political will. In states’ calculations, political considerations are constantly winning-out over the moral considerations of saving at-risk segments of our planet. While institutional and legal reforms undoubtedly play a role in addressing this challenge, such reforms and structures have existed for generations now, and have largely failed to bridge this gap from ‘moral necessity to political action’. What has been lacking is a moral understanding of humanitarian crises that is capable of reliably motivating the international community to undertake remedying actions, rather than merely expressions of concern. Such a moral foundation is achievable through institutional cosmopolitanism, an understanding of humanitarian intervention as satisfactions of our negative duties, and specifically the work of Thomas Pogge.

humanitarian intervention Thomas Pogge atrocity crimes institutional responsibility

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Bartłomiej H. Toszek
E-mail: clermont@wp.pl
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2989-7168
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 153-165
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020409
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020409.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article presents the main parties (i.e. the Conservative Party, Labor Party, Liberal Democrats and Scottish National Party) results of the 2019 UK general election as well as an analysis of the most important issues (i.e. correct identification of voters’ expectations, simplicity and clarity of the messages, leaders’ personalities) which determined each party success or loss. The author proves that since Brexit was the primary focus of voters, the level of support for particular parties remained dependent on the solutions presented in this issue. This basis explains why the Conservatives in the whole UK and the SNP in Scotland won (and the Labor Party and the Liberal Democrats lost) the battle of Brexit.

the European Union Scotland Brexit the United Kingdom the 2019 United Kingdom general election

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Michał Niebylski
E-mail: mniebylski@uni.opole.pl
Institution: University of Opole, (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1623-5886
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 166-182
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020410
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020410.pdf

Streszczenie:

The article aims to present and discuss five theoretical models explaining the issue of ideological changes in Polish political parties. The paper is to shed light on an ideology’s dynamic nature and the process of building ideology in the political parties’ environment. The article features a discussion on the circumstances favoring the implementation of ideological changes and the methods used by parties to implement changes in their ideologies. The paper adopts two research hypotheses: 1) party ideologies are developed and modified by political parties in response to the changing (social, political, economic) circumstances in the inter-party rivalry. 2) The process of ideological changes serves political parties to lead an effective inter-party rivalry. The paper establishes that the factors with scientifically documented impact on party behavior in ideological terms are as follows: electoral result (parties that achieved a result below their expectations are more eager to revise their ideologies), political competition’s activity (parties react to ideological changes of their direct rivals), electorate preferences (political forces can change their approach in crucial issues to reflect the dominant views in their electorates) and acceptance of free-market principles by the main political actors. An analysis of Polish parties’ behaviors and the gathered source material also demonstrates that the parties’ inclination to implement ideological changes depends on organizational factors.

ideologies ideological change political parties

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Michał R. Węsierski
E-mail: michal_wesierski@sggw.edu.pl
Institution: Warsaw University of Life Sciences (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3081-2160
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 183-203
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020411
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020411.pdf

Streszczenie:

Applying external scientific knowledge - i.e. knowledge achieved in the field of disciplines and sub-disciplines related to political science - in fulfiling such methodological functions as explanation and prevision (forecasting) is frequently approached in meta-scientific and meta-theoretical considerations as conducted on the ground of the family of scientific disciplines constituted by the sciences of politics. These functions can be ascribed to the purely epistemological aspect of scientific activity, not its institutional and organizational aspects. The dispute regarding the explanatory autonomy of political science is fallacious. From the logical and methodological point of view, the institutional “affiliation” of object knowledge, which constitutes a premise in complex inferences, does not play a role in the fulfilment of the assumed cognitive tasks; what is important instead is its epistemological credibility, as well as the goals of the research strategy selected by a given scholar.

logical methodology explanation object knowledge research procedures methodological functions political science

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 204-210
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020412
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020412.pdf

Streszczenie:

For the first time, Karl Loewenstein had used the category of militant democracy concerning the Weimar Republic. Although the world’s situation has changed, the process of political systems taking over non-democratic regimes’ characteristics is still visible. Among the indicators that can testify to becoming militant democracy, the restriction of freedom of the press is distinguished. This article attempts to analyze the dynamics of this process in Lithuania based on the Freedom House reports. The research question formulated is: What restrictions on the press’s freedom in Lithuania occurred in the period? The hypothesis is: In 2008-2019 in Lithuania, there has been a regular restriction on the freedom of the press, which may indicate a progressive process of militant democracy. Results: The hypothesis has been partially verified positively. During the period considered, there were regular restrictions on the freedom of the press but were justified mainly by circumstances, or immediate counter-action was taken.

militant democracy Lithuania Freedom House freedom of the press

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Joanna Rak
E-mail: joanna.rak@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0505-3684
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 213-215
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020413
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020413.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Magdalena Ziętek-Wielomska, Adam Wielomski, Państwo narodowe i jego wrogowie, Fundacja Instytut Badawczy Pro vita bona, Warszawa 2020, pp. 340.

Kontynuuj czytanie

Author: Rafał Wiśniewski
E-mail: rafal.wisniewski@amu.edu.pl
Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0155-246X
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 216-218
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020414
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020414.pdf

Streszczenie:

Book review: Lucyna Czechowska, Andriy Tyushka, Agata Domachowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor, Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska (Eds.), Państwa, Organizacje Międzynarodowe i Partnerstwa Strategiczne, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 2019, pp. 693.

Author: Joanna Siekiera
E-mail: joanna.siekiera@uib.no
Institution: University of Bergen (Norway)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-9121
Year of publication: 2020
Source: Show
Pages: 223-226
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020416
PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020416.pdf

Streszczenie:

The paper reports the conference on Australia, organized by the Polish research association based in Cracow (Australia, New Zealand and Oceania Research Association, ANZORA). The 2020 edition was already the 12th conference entitled Australia in the Time of Crisis: Climactic, Cultural, Economic, and Political Solutions. This year, the co-organizing unit was the University of Łódź, as every year, ANZORA promotes Pacific Studies at different Polish universities. The hosting faculty was the Faculty of International and Political Studies, with its Chair of British Studies and the Commonwealth Countries, as well as the “Australian Studies” Scientific Association. The panelists came from numerous disciplines and eight academic institutions from Poland and three from abroad. In total, there were 21 presenters: young scholars, experienced academics, independent researchers as well as enthusiasts of the Australian continent. Besides the University of Bergen in Norway, foreign speakers represented the Université de Bourgogne in France and the Australian Embassy in Poland. Three diplomatic missions have taken the honorary patronage over the event. Those were the Australian Embassy, the Embassy of New Zealand, and the Polish Embassy in Australia. The supporting institutions were the University of Bergen, the Polish Geopolitical Society, and the Academy of European Careers Foundation.

Australia Oceania Pacific ANZORA crisis South Pacific

Kontynuuj czytanie

Wiadomość do:

 

 

© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart