- Year of publication: 2021
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-4
- DOI Address: -
The relationship between the two countries has been a complex and diverse subject of investigation and contemplation. The interconnection between the two countries can be described by the following central notions, such as economic cooperation, rivalry in terms of status acquisition of global hegemonic power, particularly in the Pacific region and beyond controversy mutual suspicion over each other’s intentions. Therefore, it is clearly justified that each state has elaborated and adopted a specific manner of conduct and attitude regarding each other as a potential adversary but has meanwhile maintained an extremely strong economic partnership. It is fair to state, that the relationship between both countries has been described by multiple world leaders and academics as the world’s most significant bilateral relationship of the 21st century. Due to the fact that Chinese economy has started to develop increasingly fast and PRC has strengthened its positions on the world’s arena, the United States started to perceive the Middle Kingdom as a direct threat to the established world order in its drive for regional hegemony in East Asia now as well as future aspirant for global supremacy. Beijing, by contrast rejects these notions, and continues its assertive policies and its quest for allies.
The article identifies the special significance of state reserves for purposes of ensuring the national security of Ukraine. Established the main purpose of state reserves as a set of strategic reserves of the state to overcome the effects of risk factors. A review and analysis of recent domestic publications on this topic was done. The main definitions of state reserves are found. Established that the existing definitions of state reserves have, mainly, the material and economic plane of understanding. The author’s definition of state reserves was derived and proposed. It was noted that the definition should also contain an institutional and organizational component. The main structural components of state reserve are considered, among which the mobilization reserve, reserves to meet the strategic needs of the country and reserves to perform priority work during emergency response are identified. The peculiarity of the process of state reserve management is studied, where such classical components as normative-legal, institutional and organizational are singled out. A number of normative legal acts were analyzed, which regulate the basic principles of formation, use and disposal of state reserve of Ukraine, as well as the principles of activity of the State Reserve. Established that the institutional component of state reserve management process is embodied in the State Reserve, which is the central body of executive power. The relevance of the thesis that activity of the State Reserve as an active subject of economic processes is one of the main elements of state reserves management is also proved. The content of the process of managing the state reserve is revealed through the need to stabilize the socio-economic situation both in conditions of uncertainty and the consequences of emergencies, and in the normal functioning of the state economy. The essence of process of state reserve management is defined as the rational use of material and technical values that form the strategic reserve of state, in order to regulate economic development in normal socio-economic conditions or quickly overcome the negative consequences of man-made or natural emergencies as well as the consequences of martial law.
In the years since Ukraine’s independence, attention has been paid to defense capability of the country, but reforming the national defense sector has been falling behind current needs. The Ukrainian course towards the European community and NATO membership predetermines the advancement of all spheres of public life, including training of officer personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, its education and career progress. The reform of military education requires introducing new academic programs that permit training modern-type officers - military managers, who can constructively interpret theoretical materials, the experience of domestic and foreign scientists and implement them in their practical activities. Against the backdrop of the reform of military education, one of the most important tasks of higher military education involves not only training highly-qualified specialists but also the conformity of their knowledge with international standards that will allow them to be competitive both at the domestic and international labor markets and be compatible with NATO partners. The introduction of practical management experience as management methodology for the relevant system into military medicine will drive the formation of the requirements for organizing the training of specifically qualified personnel. The training of a manager and leader under the dictatorship (authoritarian) principle is passing into history; there is a need for a military manager as a prototype of an intelligent and wise leader. With the advent and expansion of such a control system as management, the following question has arisen sporadically: what is the difference between management and administration? The objective of management is to increase the profitability of business and production activities, i.e., gaining profit. The objective of administration, in particular, state or public, is to regulate social relations, which would be convenient and beneficial to the use of business and all citizens of the state in their day-to-day operations. Management objectives prescribe the features of management methodology which relies on the guiding principle: public administration adopts methodology and action procedure, which is defined by current legislation, and management adopts methodology and action procedure, which is not prohibited by law. Consequently, military administration is close to public administration in terms of the mentioned methodological principle since it is regulated by statutory acts and the system of orders allowed by the relevant laws in force. Thus, heightened attention to the enhancement of military administration is more important than using the terms “military management” and “military manager” within the system of military administration.
This article is devoted to the analysis of historical and legal aspects of payment of income from advocacy in Ukraine. A study of the history of the establishment of such an institution as the bar, the procedure for remuneration for the work of a lawyer, the formation of his income and their legal consolidation. Attention was also paid to the peculiarities of the payment of mandatory fees by bar associations (BA), the formation of the tax burden on income from advocacy. In addition, an analysis of tax legislation and legislation governing the payment of the single social contribution and other mandatory payments. Using the method of analysis and synthesis, ten stages of the formation of the bar, which directly affected the forms and types of income from advocacy and the enshrinement in law of mandatory payments for these activities and their compatibility with income. It is determined that the first stage of such formation occurred in 1917–1918, when lawyers began to receive income from their professional activities; second stage (1918–1919) – the income of a lawyer in the boards was in the form of wages; the third stage (1919–1922) – creation of legislative bases of taxation of lawyer’s activity; the fourth stage (1922–1929) – the transition of the Ukrainian Bar (UB) to collective forms of work; the fifth stage (1929–1931) – the abolition of private practice; the sixth stage (1931–1932) – the bit-share form of payment of work of lawyers is formed; the seventh stage (1932–1960) – introduction of the system of self-financing; the eighth stage (1960–1980) – change of understanding and concept of activity of lawyers; ninth stage (1980–1991) – lawyers are exempt from taxation; the tenth stage – since 1991, the formation of the legislation of independent Ukraine, different approaches to the taxation of income from advocacy, which depends on the choice of lawyers appropriate system of taxation and form of advocacy, as well as excessive tax pressure.
In the current dynamic world the strategic communications (STRATCOM) mean a comprehensive process which is aimed at developing, promoting, and distributing the required narratives and messages of any organization in order to form and ensure its positive image, inform counterparts (adversaries) and target audiences of the organization’s intents and positions, main tasks and achievements. While implementing the STRATCOM, it is very important to remember about their main rules and principles which are unique for both security and defence sector and business. Unfortunately, in the current “hybrid” measurement sometimes we should realize the effectiveness of the SC activities, thus it is necessary to define the measurements of effectiveness and performance for effective evaluation of activities. Ukraine has been repelling the aggression in the Eastern Ukraine since 2014 within massive hybrid warfare against it. This fact has caused the initiating a range of reform and innovative processes in Ukraine. Since then, we have known about the STRATCOM in Ukraine. In (Historical retrospective analysis of formation and development of strategic communications in security and defence sector of Ukraine) we have analyzed the process of development of the SC in security and defence sector. This process was speeded and pressed up by the warfare. Moreover, it was implemented in line with existing NATO principles and standards. Even the definition and concept of the STRATCOM were taken from the NATO documents. However, the reality reveals the necessity to revise the term definition and consider the implementation of business processes related to communications in security and defence sector. Some nations have already passed through this transformation and changed the approach to their SC. Even NATO Military Policy on Strategic Communications MC 0628 was successfully used until 2014. It is the STRATCOM baseline documents and it needed to be revised (NATO and Strategic Communications. The story so far. The Three Swords Magazine 33/2018. pp. 65–73). In the article the authors make some proposals how to improve the STRATCOM definition and improve the whole process of their realization.
Talented youths such as students, professionals, information technology experts, entrepreneurs, cultural workers, and others are now more internationally mobile in the world economy as a delinquent response to new opportunities (and risks) that are offered by globalization. This trend has been reinforced by the greater information flow on economic opportunities and life-styles in different cities and countries across the globe and by lower transportation costs. The burden of this paper is a critical examination of the various dimensions of delinquent international mobility of human capital and its developmental implications on source nations (often developing countries), recipient nations (often rich countries), and on international crime and development. The work is also interested in empirical solution to risk factors against youthful talents and possibilities as imperatives for social mobilization and transformation in a globalized world. The theoretical model for this work shall connect neo-Marxist critical perspective and comparative advantage theory viewed in the light of parsonnian social order model. Finally, the paper will critique social transformation problematic associated with youthful talents not developed and mobilized. Through resourceful literature and empirical models as stated earlier, the possible solutions will emerge. My expectation is to highlight the need for an adequate and cooperative policy response that balances the human resource needs of the source countries and of the receiving countries considering the fact that ethical standards for recruitment and compensation schemes are possible tools to deal with this phenomenon.
Many factors have been adduced to explain why some states become democracies and others not. Accepted variables predicting democracy include education level, economic development, urbanization, communication networks and so on. This paper will explore two biological variables’ role—nutrition level and health status. Comparative data are used to explore the effects of these variables on level of democracy. Implications are discussed.
The scientific article is devoted to the issue of the disclosure of the processes of establishment and development of decentralization and taxation during the times of the Ants State, Kievan Rus and Principality of Galicia-Volhynia, as well as the determination of the relationship between these two processes. Due to the study of the topic of the article through the prism of various historical developments, it is possible to trace the formation and development of the tax institute in the first state institutions on the territory of modern Ukraine, as well as the form of the exercise of the people’s power and its significance in the decision-making of both state-wide decisions and the resolution of issues of local importance. The role and significance of local authorities and issues that could be resolved by the then bodies of the people’s administration are revealed, and at the same time relations between the central authorities and the authorities of territorial communities are covered. Attention is paid to the law enforcement in the development of the people’s administration, taxation and their relationship between the state entities of the investigated historical epochs. Among other things, the article is devoted to establishment of a clear link between the gradual transition of power from the bodies of the people’s rule to the central apparatus in the person of the prince and his surroundings and, as a result, the necessity of permanent resources, at the expense of which it would be possible to keep them. The article analyzes the reasons for the necessity of revenue receipts and the main types of revenue receipts of the time, as well as the bodies on which the duties of tax collection were imposed. Attention is paid to the definition of such tax characteristics as collection bodies, collection form, documentary fixing and further distribution and use of taxes. As a conclusion of the research, the author has formed a table with indication of the basic types of revenue receipts of a given period and level of decentralization in such period, and also has made generalization of the connection of these two processes.
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