- Year of publication: 2020
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-4
- DOI Address: -
This article reviews the academic literature on the regional security complex of the South Caucasus, which has been drawing the attention of the academic community for a long time. The paper aims to examine the security dynamics in the South Caucasus with a focus on Azerbaijan and a way in which domestic security is interconnected and linked to the region`s neighborhood and global arena. The conceptual framework for the paper is the regional security complex theory, elaborated by Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver. South Caucasus is an unstable region with several secessionist conflicts and interstate wars, exposed to the influence of its neighbors, which shape the regional security environment. Besides, the region is riven by geopolitical fractures as regional states have various foreign policy orientations, which hampers the resolution of regional conflicts and complicates cooperation. The research is carried at three levels of analysis - the domestic level, reviewing internal vulnerabilities and state to state relations, interregional level, examining dynamics between regional and neighboring states, and the last level - global, considering the interplay between regional and the world-leading powers. Correspondingly, sections of the paper study internal challenges and threats of the regional states, examine relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and their neighborhood - Turkey, Iran, Russia, as well as global powers - the EU and the US to analyze similar and conflicting interests and patterns of influence. The article concludes that the South Caucasus security environment is unstable, hampered by the failure of democratic transformation and unresolved conflicts, namely Nagorno-Karabakh, which Russia uses as a tool to keep Caucasian states in a sphere of its influence. It is evident that Azerbaijan plays a vital role in the production and transit of hydrocarbons from the Caspian region to Europe. Therefore, it is crucial to eliminate threats coming from the region and to ensure the security of energy infrastructure, carrying energy resources westwards.
Various social, political and economic contexts give rise to visibly different concepts of security and these differences make one ponder on the limitations of traditional concepts of democratization and political development. Scientists, politicians and activists are now ever more boldly beginning to ask difficult but necessary questions about the appropriate dynamics of the processes of creating security and about the priorities adopted within them, searching for ways on which these processes could be co-created by traditional, local visions of needs of citizens’ safe life. The review of scholarly literature and political journalism addressing security points out new spheres of debates and subjects of controversy within this discipline. In a situation where in security-related processes governments cannot be the only ones that dominate, a question about the possibility of expanding activities with non-governmental organizations arises.
Th is study aims to determine whether the decision of the V Lustration Department of the Court of Appeal in Warsaw issued in 2000, that Lech Wałęsa was not a secret collaborate of the former Security Service of the Polish People’s Republic (PPR), was a correct one. Marek Aft yka’s “briefi ng memo” and Proceedings of Regional Court in Gdańsk I Civil Department in 2010 in a case brought by Lech Wałęsa against Krzysztof Wyszkowski were researched in this article.
It is stated that individual decisions of judges in 2000 were wrong in this case, which was confi rmed on February 16, 2016 by fi nding the personal and working fi les of the secret collaborate codename “Bolek”. Analysis of the sources demonstrated that Wałęsa he did not consider the cooperation with the prosecution and security institutions, as well as with the state of real socialism as something wrong. At the same time, former Polish president, as a well-trained agent, will never admit to the cooperation.
The article considers pertinent issues related to social policymaking and its implementation in Ukraine.
Emphasis is placed on remuneration as the key element of ensuring citizens’ welfare and economic development of the state. Remuneration plays one of the most important roles in the economic system and ensuring a decent standard of living. The wage refl ects the employee’s welfare level and should be correlated with the qualification level and productivity in the production spheres or determined according to the set qualification criteria, quality assessment system and efficiency of employees in non-production spheres. Low remuneration standards and low correlation between wages and productivity affect the motivation of the workforce and reduce its economic and labour activity.
The analysis of the minimum wage and subsistence level as the categories defining the status and directions of economic and social policy of the state has been performed. The minimum wage has a decisive infl uence on many social and economic processes. A significant issue in Ukraine is that establishing the minimum wage in the legislation is made without objective analysis and taking into account the financial and economic conditions that should be the basis for the state social policymaking. The minimum wage directly affects the volume and structure of the expenditure part of state and local budgets, as it is one of the basic elements for making the payroll of budgetary institutions and organizations. For business structures, the minimum wage is an indicator that refl ects the economic and social policy of the state, as well as a microeconomic category that affects their current business activities and the production and financial strategy making.
Some aspects of the current social protection system in Ukraine have been described. One of the main issues in Ukraine is the excessive number of legislative acts regulating social protection matters. Another important issue is that a significant number of benefits and social transfers, which are stipulated in the legislation and guaranteed to the citizens, cannot be implemented due to lack of financial resources in the state budget. Today, one of the priority tasks of the state policy is to address issues of reforming the social protection system and the introduction of new efficient mechanisms for financing and managing the social services system.
It has been noted about the need to develop and set in the legislation a system of social standards and norms, as well as the development of a standardised mechanism for determining the minimum wage and subsistence level based on and depending on the socio-economic development indicators.
The aim of this article is to analyse Communist Party of Poland as the party of Polish proletariat, working class that represents also the interests of other Polish working peoples. Emphasis is placed The strategy of CPP is like other communist parties, socialist revolution, socialism and in the further time communism. The CPP is based in its struggle on the theory of Marxism-Leninism and the progressive tradition of the building of socialism in former People’s Republic Poland.
The article deals with the problem of national security in the contemporary world which is greatly influenced by the process of globalization and digitalization. The paper highlights the role of national security in modern state building. The following issue has been of great interest to many outstanding scientists worldwide especially since the beginning of the XXI century. However, the subject matter of national security in the system of public administration has not been clearly defined yet. Therefore, the paper analyzes the approaches to define national security and points out its distinctive features. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that at the level of national, regional and global relations the concept of national security is often associated with security strategies. Thus, the article puts emphasis on the predominant characteristics that help to distinguish between these two concepts. In addition, the research clarifies the characteristic features of national security as well as state security. Security, like many other categories of social sciences, does not have a conclusive definition. What is more, the category of security has an interdisciplinary significance. Therefore, scientists define it in accordance with the subject matter and the specifics of cognition and research. Nevertheless, many outstanding scholars view security as an anthropocentric category related to man’s socialessence and value. Accordingly, security presupposes having freedom from the risk, danger and the threat of change to the worse. Most scientists agree that security is a constituent of every aspect of human life. Consequently, security issues consideration is of great significance. All in all, nowadays it is greatly important to achieve a state of security as our globalized society frequently leads to different challenges and dangers. The results of the research contribute to better understanding of the issue and make it possible to introduce effective mechanisms of public administration in the field of national security.
The relevance of the study is determined both by the insufficient study of the diplomatic ceremonials of the USSR, and the fact that knowledge of the laws of their functioning expands our ideas about the cultural component of the life of Soviet society.
Taking into account the absence in Russian historiography of a special study devoted to the problem of the interaction of arts at diplomatic ceremonies, the author set the goal to conduct a comprehensive research of the problem of the interaction of arts in diplomatic ceremonials.
The article considers the stay of the Diplomatic Corps in Moscow from the point of view of the influence of foreign policy priorities on the norms of the diplomatic protocol.
Examples of balls, sports, receptions, organized by the embassies of Germany and Italy, which in the 20–30s played a leading role in the life of the Diplomatic Corps, are given.
The content of concert programs of official foreign visits, which contributed to the creation of a positive image of the country on the world stage, is analyzed.
For the first time the term “diplomatic counterculture” is introduced into scientific circulation – an intentional violation of the diplomatic protocol and diplomatic etiquette in order to achieve a specific result in international communication.
It was revealed that the diplomatic ceremonial in itself is a synthesis of arts – the picturesque design of space, music, choreography, costume.
Already in the first years of Soviet power, symbols of power entered the “struggle for power.” At diplomatic ceremonies this struggle was in the form of a confrontation between European protocol traditions and the rules of the Soviet diplomatic protocol and etiquette newly created by the employees of the Protocol Division of the USSR People’s Commissariat for Foreign Affairs.
Dress code, concert programs, a list of dishes served – everything had to meet the standards of Bolshevik ideology.
Hospitality is an important component of national politics. The Protocol Division, through its work, tried to destroy stereotypes about the USSR as an evil empire. The multinational Soviet culture contributed to the creation of a positive image of the state on the world stage.
The essence of staffing of local governments is clarified in the work. It is substantiated that this is a system of principles, forms and methods of forming the necessary qualitative and quantitative composition of local governments, aimed at improving human resources and their effective use. The mechanism of staffing of local authorities effective functioning is offered, the feature of which is the inclusion of the processes of formation and realization. As a target orientation of the mechanism of staffing of local governments, their effective functioning is defined by achieving a certain goal to increase the level of life of the territorial community. The use of the qualimetric approach for construction of the optimum scenario of staffing of effective functioning of local governments is substantiated.
Th e scheme of construction of qualimetric model of an estimation of quality of staffi ng of eff ective functioning of local governments is developed. It is determined that the quality of staffi ng of local governments is determined by analyzing the factors that have the greatest impact on of local governments staffi ng. As part of the study of the Merefa city united territorial community (Kharkiv region) the proposed qualimetric model was tested. Visualization of the level of quality of staffing of Merefa UTC in terms of functional processes allowed to determine that such functional processes as staff motivation and incentives, as well as staff development, professional development are the most important areas for improving the staffing process. The results of the sociological survey confirmed the important role of the level of competence of employees of executive bodies and the level of remuneration in the context of improving the efficiency of UTC.
The proposed qualimetric model for assessing the quality of staffing allows not only to determine the effectiveness of local governments staffing, but also to identify those functional processes that require the most attention in terms of improving the functioning efficiency.
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