Author: The Editors
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 3-4
DOI Address: -
PDF: so/13/so13toc.pdf

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Author: Andrzej Stopczyński
E-mail: andrzejstopczynski@tlen.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 5-22
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018101
PDF: so/13/so1301.pdf

Abstract:

The legal framework for the functioning of Muslim community in the Russian Federation

At present, the Muslim community in the Russian Federation grows in importance and strength. The religious freedom, which came as a result of the democratic transformation that took place in the Russian Federation in the late 1980s and early 1990s opened the opportunity for its Muslim residents to develop their own culture, educational system and administrative structure. The freedom of religion was one of the most important elements of perestroika and one of the directions of Russia’s development following the transformation. Here, the freedom of religion can be considered as both an element of liberalization of the Soviet regime, and, after the break-up of the USSR, as a step towards democratization. The article aims to present the most important legal acts and documents that constitute the legal basis for the functioning of Muslims in the contemporary Russian Federation.

Tags: Law society Islam Russian Federation Muslim community ислам

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Author: Jacek Małecki
E-mail: jacek.malecki@onet.com.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 23-49
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018102
PDF: so/13/so1302.pdf

Abstract:

Egyptian-Syrian relations after 2011

Egypt and Syria have been important actors in the Middle East, a region of considerable geostrategic importance. This article analyses relations between the two countries after 2011 in the context of events related to the so-called Arab Spring. The first part of the study describes the common path Egypt and Syria took over the past millennia, which explains the significance of their mutual relations. In the section that follows, the author shows the destructive impact of processes related to the Arab Spring on relations between these countries, most notably the eruption of the Syrian conflict and the takeover of power in Egypt by the Muslim Brotherhood. Next, the article describes the impact of the fall of Islamists in Egypt in 2013. Although since then relations between the two countries have ceased to be hostile, efforts to repair them remain slow. The author argues that the reasons for this delay could be attributed to the pressures exercised by external actors.

Tags: Syria Middle East Ближний Восток Egypt Arab Spring Egyptian-Syrian relations Muslim Brotherhood Сирия

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Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
E-mail: n.zajaczkowska@interia.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 50-68
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018103
PDF: so/13/so1303.pdf

Abstract:

Between Conflict and Coexistence: A Case Study of Hindu-Muslim Relations in Rural North-Western India

The Partition of India upset the status quo causing riots, casualties and a colossal wave of migration that sent thousands of Muslims to their new homeland, Pakistan. Despite the mass violence and displacement, around 35 million Muslims eventually stayed in India. The tensed Hindu–Muslim relations in the aftermath of the Partition intensified a long-standing rivalry between the two groups and led to a feeling of insecurity among Muslims. Strained relations among Hindus and Muslims, which stay at the forefront of social concerns in contemporary India, remain a major cause of worry and call for an in-depth analysis. The article focuses on how the Hindu-Muslim relations developed throughout the modern history, especially during the times of the Indian Independence Movement. The goal of my research is to elucidate historical, social and political contexts of Hindu– Muslim relations in India and to shed a new light on this multifaceted issue. After presenting a historical perspective on Hindu-Muslim relations, the article provides a case study on both communities’ attitudes towards each other. Based on two months of fieldwork conducted in Northern villages of India in January and February 2018, I investigate the multiple stereotypes about Muslims prevailing among Hindu rural community. I address a question whether the character of this uneasy relation is closer to coexistence or a hidden conflict.

Tags: India conflict Hindu Muslim Relations nationalism communalism индийские-мусульманские отношения

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Author: Marzena Mruk
E-mail: mmruk@us.edu.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 69-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018104
PDF: so/13/so1304.pdf

Abstract:

Politics of Saudi Arabia and the United States against the civil war in Syria – a convergence or divergence of interests?

The policy of Saudi Arabia and the United States towards Syria since 2011 is full of paradoxes. On the one hand, both countries are in favor of overthrowing the regime of Bashar al-Assad and reducing the influence of Iran and Russia in Syria, but on the other hand there are discrepancies in the approach of Washington and Riyad to the Syrian question, which was particularly visible during the presidency of Barack Obama. The issue of financing the opposition groups fighting in Syria, but most of all the problem of launching land intervention in a war-stricken country was among the contentious issues. The Kingdom, as an advocate of intervention, has repeatedly called on Washington to take more decisive steps to overthrow al-Assad and combat the so-called Islamic State. However, the other problems facing the White House and Riyadh, which affect the solution of the Syrian question, are nowadays a priority in the policies of the United States and Saudi Arabia, in contrast to the war in Syria.

Tags: Saudi Arabia United States Syria civil war caliphate Саудовская Аравия Сирия

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Author: Dominika Kovačević
E-mail: domkov@wp.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 90-112
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018105
PDF: so/13/so1305.pdf

Abstract:

Orthodox Palestinians – between Muslims, Jews and Greeks

Palestinians are not a homogeneous group. One of the minority groups are Christians, the majority of whom is Orthodox. Although relatively few have stayed in their homeland, they still play an important role there. The Orthodox Palestinians have a strong feeling of identity, both ethnically, as Arabs, and religiously as Orthodox Christians. They face problems in three main domains. First, they are exposed to the same forms of discrimination from the Israeli regime as the rest of Palestinians – they are deprived of the opportunity to create and be part of their own, fully independent state. Second, they are a minority living among the Sunni majority nation. Thirdly, despite being a majority in their Church – Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem – they are under Greek domination in various areas. All these factors render the situation of Orthodox Palestinians very complex. The aim of this article is to show this situation and its potential influence on the Palestinian question and the Orthodox Church issues.

Tags: Palestine Israel Orthodox Church minorities Jerusalem conflict Палестина

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Author: Anna Oliwa
E-mail: anna.oliwa@outlook.com
Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 113-130
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018106
PDF: so/13/so1306.pdf

Abstract:

Constitutional and political role of the royal family in Arab monarchies – Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco

The article aims to explain the constitutional and political role of the royal family in three Arab monarchies: Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Morocco. The introduction discusses the typology of monarchy, including the division into individual monarchies with the marginal role of the royal family and monarchies where the royal family holds a significant position. Through the use of a comparative method, the article analyses the constitutional position of the royal family according to the normative acts of the studied states. The next part of the article attempts to answer the following questions: what place does the royal family occupy in the political system of their country? do its members have individual competences or share them with other state authorities? The importance of factors such as religion and family history will be emphasized. In addition, the author will indicate areas of social and political life that may be influenced by members of the royal family.

Tags: monarchy royal family Middle East Constitution politics монархия Ближний Восток

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Author: Paulina Jagoda Warsza
E-mail: paulinawarsza@wp.pl
Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 131-157
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018107
PDF: so/13/so1307.pdf

Abstract:

Iraq 2018 – a strategic choice. The background, implications and importance of Iraq’s parliamentary elections of 2018

The parliamentary elections of May 2018 may become a landmark for Iraq on both internal and geopolitical levels. This paper analyses internal and international preconditions of Iraqi parliamentary elections in the context of possible implications of the election results for the international position of Iraq and internal stability of the state. The international context is shaped by security situation in the region, the increased engagement of Saudi Arabia, American efforts to isolate Teheran and the internal situation in Iran as well as the growing rivalry between centers of Shia Islam in Najaf and Qom and the different models of socio- political organization they propose. In the internal dimension, the election results – while surprising for the establishment and the majority of observers – are the outcome of many variables: the systemic crisis related to the Kurdish independence referendum, the disputable position and the future role of the Popular Mobilization Units in the political system and security apparatus. The increasing social pressure may require the reform of the Iraqi political system. The results of 2018 elections – as well as the dynamics and nature of popular protests unfolding since 2015 – show that the majority of Iraqis that are engaged in this new social movement demonstrate an anti-interventionist attitude and support the integrity of the state. The widespread protests indicate that the status quo based on the sectarian quota sharing system adopted in 2005 is being questioned, as well as the common notion that religion and ethnicity are the main political motivations in the Middle East. This article aims to demonstrate that due to the co-occurrence of specific processes and phenomena in the international environment and in Iraq itself (in area of civic-awareness that has resulted in creation of a social movement), a process of political emancipation has begun that may lead to reestablishment of Iraq as a sovereign entity in international politics.

Tags: Iraq parliamentary elections Muqtada al-Sadr the anti-system protests Ирак

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Author: Magdalena El Ghamari
Institution: Pałac Kultury i Nauki
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 158-177
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018108
PDF: so/13/so1308.pdf

Abstract:

Balkan melting pot of cultural security – radicalization in Bosnia and Hercegovina

After the end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995, radical Islam spread in the country. The process of radicalization was influenced by the activity of Islamic charities and development assistance from Saudi Arabia and the settlement of former Arab fighters in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The article aims to argue the importance of the problem of cultural security and radicalization in the Balkans, and in particular in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the authorities try to implement educational policy that tackles multiculturalism and religion, as well as to open a dialogue with radicals who have become a threat to the majority of residents. Nonetheless, there are many people in Bosnia and Herzegovina who are vulnerable to radical ideology, which in extreme cases resulted in them taking a journey to Syria and Iraq and joining the so-called Islamic State. The reasons behind this decision were, among others: unemployment, poverty and lack of faith in a better future for the young generation.

Tags: Балканы Bosnia and Herzegovina radicalization Balkans peninsula безопасность security

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Author: Ewelina Zalewska
E-mail: ezalewska556@gmail.com
Institution: Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
Year of publication: 2018
Source: Show
Pages: 178-197
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018109
PDF: so/13/so1309.pdf

Abstract:

The perception of Europe and Europeans by refugees from Dahuk. A report from research conducted in a refugee camp in Iraqi Kurdistan

This article presents the analysis from a research project carried out by the author in Dahuk, a refugee camp in Iraqi Kurdistan in July 2016. The research project concerned the perception of Europe and Europeans by Arabs and Yazidis, who stayed in the refugee camp. Based on unstructured observations and in-depth interviews, the following images of Europe and Europeans were prominent in refugees’ narratives: a belief in the possibility of quick enrichment in Europe, relaxed relationships between family and friends in Europe, relaxed relations between women and men in Europe and the liberal lifestyle of European women. Based on the gathered data, the author analyses chances of respondents’ integration in Europe. The author focuses on factors conducive to integration and factors that impede integration. This subject has gained particular importance during the recent migration crisis. The arrival of big number of refugees from the Middle East to Europe once again sparked public debates about the possibility for their integration in Europe.

Tags: refugees integration of refugees migration crisis the perception of Europe by refugees the perception of Europeans by refugees stereotypes about Europeans Muslims Yazidis беженцы

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