- Year of publication: 2019
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-4
- DOI Address: -
Summer Olympic Games in Beijing in the context of selected scientific theories
Summer Olympic Games is, apart from football world cup, the most popular sports event. It is widely believed that it is something more than just sports event. It can be analysed from economic, marketing or political perspective. It is an opportunity to present country’s own culture, technology and history. However, there is also some kind of threat associated with such events. Organization of such events is not possible without involvement of public sector and political bodies. It creates specific relationship in which sport affects functioning of the state in some areas and state may use Olympic Games for its own particularistic interests. Such relationship occurred also in the case of 29th Summer Olympic Games in Beijing that took place between 8.08.2008 and 24.08.2008.
This article shows how China tried to use the olympic games to achieve political goals. Additionally, it was verified to what extent the organization of the event influenced the change of perception of China to international arena, civil liberties and the consolidation of society around the political bodies. The considerations were based on several scientific theories defining the role of sport in image building countries – presented by Barrie Houlihan, Joshua Goldstein, Walter Maening and Maurice Roche.
The sources of origin and contemporary shape of the political parties and political culture in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is a state with very specific political culture and unparalleled mechanisms of the functioning of the political parties. The article is intended to show the reasons for its development in its present form and what may even more important – the attitudes of citizens. It presents a characteristic understanding of democracy and the perception of political pluralism, which is not a desirable value at all, and the unanimity of the whole nation is glorified instead. Contrary to popular belief, in North Korea – apart from the ruling Workers’ Party of Korea – there are also other political groups with representatives in parliament. Therefore, the genesis of their creation and the profile were presented. The text is also an analysis of their actual significance and impact on the DPRK’s party system and policy, and whether the current situation may change significantly in the near future, also considering the possibility of citizens undertaking independent political activity.
The facade speaks of the interior? Sculptural decoration of the rock-cut temples complex Manmodi in Junnar
The article discusses the issue of Indian rock architecture and the interesting problem of unfinished temples, exemplified by the Manmodi complex in Junnar. At the beginning, the location of the complex is described in the context of the location of the town of Junnar, located in the Maharashtra state. The article describes the monuments of Junnar and focused on the artistic value of rock temples and the unusual decorative motifs that appear in them. In the next part of the article the author draws attention to the possibility of linking the location of the city and complexes with the quality and uniqueness of used motifs. The description of the rock complex is conducted in the historical and artistic context. The analysis of the works was based on sources from literature and own research conducted by the author in India. The stylistic- -comparative analysis allowed to locate this complex in the context of the development of rock art in India and to consider the problem of unfinished temples. The unique motifs used in the decoration drew the author’s attention to the Yavana foundation, which were briefly presented in the article. The author presents in a short and clear way the problems of unfinished temples, extended facades and infinite interiors. The analysis takes place in the context of the entire rock art, also in reference to foreign foundations and unique motifs.
Polish-Lithuanian restitutive negotiations in the period of the Third Republic of Poland (1911–2018)
Since regaining independence in 1991, Lithuanian historical documents have been kept in two archives: 1) the Lithuanian State Historical Archives (Lietuvos Valstybes Istorijos Archyvas); 2) the Lithuanian Central State Archives (Lietuvos Centrinis Valstybinis Archiv). Making them available for Polish scholars was a subject of negotiations between Polish and Lithuanian archivists. In June 11, 1993 in Białystok there was signed an agreement of cooperation between the Head Office of State Archives (Jerzy Skowronek) and the Office of the Chief Archivist of Lithuania (Stanislovas Gediminas Ilgunas). It concerned mainly information sharing about Lithuanian documents in Poland and Polish documents in Lithuania.
1994 Treaty Between the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Lithuania on Friendly Relations and Neighbourly Cooperation signed on April 26, 1994 has regulated the issues of cultural heritage protection in its Articles XVIII and XXIII. Based on the treaty and consistently with the principle of pertinence (territorial affiliation), on October 26, 1994 there was signed Polish- Lithuanian Initiating Protocol on Exchanging Record Documents. Further talks between Director Jerzy Skowronek (1937–1996) and Stanislovas Gediminas Ilgunas (1936–2010) held in the Lithuanian Archives Department and the Lithuanian State Historical Archives resulted in agreeing on the working schedules of Polish and Lithuanian archivists.
Moreover, queries were concluded by the Military Archival Commission which made more than 100 thousand copies of acts of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania coming from 1918–1939, documents of Poles imprisoned between September 1939 and July 1940 (in Kalvarija and Birštonas), and acts of Lithuanian NKVD and KGB – kept in the Lithuanian Central State Archives and the Lithuanian Special Archives of the former KGB.
On January 6, 1995 – independently on the agreement between Polish and Lithuanian archives – the Ambassador of Lithuania to Poland, HE Antanas Valionis (born in 1950), conveyed the copies of documents concerning 52 Poles murdered in Vilnius in 1944–1947 by NKVD to the Chief Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation.
Polish-Lithuanian exchanging revindication that took place in 1995– –1998 led to the State Archive’s in Suwałki conveying to the Lithuanian State Historical Archives more than 70 thousand of microfilm frames with civil status books produced in 1808–1912 on the territory of middle and eastern part of the former Sejny County that was accessed to Lithuania after the I World War. Simultaneously, Lithuanians conveyed to the State Archive in Białystok also more than 70 thousand of microfilm frames made by XIX-th century record books of parish deaneries in Białystok, Knyszyn and Sokółka.
On December 16, 1999 the governments of the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Lithuania signed a bilateral agreement on the cooperation of government plenipotentiaries in terms of cultural heritage protection that has become the pillar of joint archive studies, library conservation, securing the monuments of sacral and residential architecture, and the joint discovering and studying the common past.
On November 28, 2006 in Warsaw there was held a summit of the Polish- Lithuanian Expert Group on the Preservation of Cultural Heritage during which both sides declared cooperation between the archives of Poland and Lithuania. Sides agreed to collect data concerning Polish documents in Lithuania and Lithuanian documents in Poland.
Despite Lithuania keeps Polish cultural heritage appropriated in 1939– 1940 and discriminates against Polish minority, it has become an important partner in Polish Eastern politics in recent ten years.
In Lithuania – independently on studies conducted in Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Moscow – there are very advanced works on editing another volumes of Lithuanian Metrica which is a collection of copies of almost all documents leaving the grand-ducal office between 1440–1795. It has been published since the end of XIX-th century in the Romanov Empire in the series of the National Library of Russia. In 1993–2015 there were published 53 volumes of the Lithuanian Metrica and a series edited in Poland. Now there should be expected – despite financial problems – the edition of another 27 volumes, several of which are already ready to print. However, there are still 500 volumes of acts of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that await publication. It would be a task equally magnificent to Polish Bibliography of Estreichers.
Still, the matter of returning archives concerning the current Polish state remains unresolved. The same applies to the prewar Wróblewski Library – nationalized in 1940 by the authorities of Soviet Lithuania and transformed into the Library of the Academy of Sciences of Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (currently the Wroblewski Library of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences).
The development of the Polish Navy after 1918 – selected problems
After The World War I, which ended on the 11th September 1918, Poland once again became an independent state after more than one hundred and twenty years of partitions and enslavement. The country began a slow and laborious process of rebuilding and reconstructing many branches of economy, industry and other fields. It was the time of strengthening the borders and rebuilding the army.
Polish Navy was born in 1918 and during the process of its development, it had to face numerous difficulties – staff, equipment, technical, and others. The marine forces were developed using, mainly, loans which were granted to Poland through international negotiations. At this time, Poland’s main lender and military ally was France. It was there where our very first battleships and their cannons were ordered. The very first orders were two destroyers and three underwater minelayers as well as their guns, cannons and weaponry, in the sense of artillery, mine, and torpedo weapon. The process of gaining new vessels was also built up by English loans, which were used to buy next two destroyers as well as their equipment. Another torpedoes were thus bought in Great Britain.
Despite many complications, the Polish Navy was in blossom. It had been brought to life by Józef Piłsudski on November 28th 1918.
In the paper there have been presented certain details concerning the main aspects of the destroyers and underwater minelayers in Poland after regaining independence.
The influence of the October Revolution on the revolutionary changes in Poland at 1917–1920
The main thesis of article is the influence of the Oktober Revolution on the revolutionary changes in Poland at 1917–1920. It’s described causes and results of war world 1 and the fall of 2.I nternationale. In next time were organizing the revolutionary parties of Socialdemocracy and established communist parties, which 1919 united and established in the 3th Internationale – Communist The great ideological-political role in this process played revolutionary part od Russian Socialdemocracy – bolsheviki with W.I.Lenin as leader.
The polish state was fall at the end 18th century and on the war world one since 1915 the territory was occupied by Germany and Austria. There at 19th century developed capitalizm and were estblishing worker parties especialy Great Proletariat, Polish Socialist Party (PPS), Socialdemocracy of Polish Kingsdom and Litauen (SDKPi), in next time from PPS was established PPS-Left. Workers were also under ideological influence of Polish katholic church, of national and solidarity movements. At 1917–1920 were many strikes and demonstrations, the class struggle developed in cities and in the country. There were also the struggle for the independent polish state in form of 2 main class forces: 1. bourgeoisie and landlords and 2. socialist proletariat. The workers (also partialy peasants) were organizing in the councils of worker delegates (like in Russia), there were about 100 councils in main industrial centres of Poland, but they were to weak in victorious struggle against capitalist forces at 1918–1920, especialy when the Poland-Soviet Russia war breake out. In Juli 1920 in Białystok was established The Contemporary Revolutionary Committee of Poland as a Revolutionary Government of Polish Soviet Republic, but it was collapsed together with Polish revolutionists and Soviet Red Army in battle by Warsaw August 1920. In result Polish revolution defeated and won the Polish bourgeoisie and landlords with the support of international capital. There is established the liberal-democratic state, which persisted to 1926, to coup d’ etat of Marshall J. Piłsudski.
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Cultural image of hospitality in Russian phraseology
In language we find traces of prehistory, folk wisdom, which was passed down from generation to generation in oral form. To better understand the legacy of a given nation, one should delve into its phraseology. In Russian we will find a lot of phraseological relationships and sayings, which prove the evolution of language and culture. Of these, an interesting group are those dedicated to culinary traditions. This group of phraseology perfectly illustrates the lives of simple people. They describe the way of eating meals and the home hierarchy.
St. Dimitry of Rostov and the «crisis» of the parish school in the end XVII century
This article is about problems of national Russian and partly Ukrainian education system in end XVI – beginin XVIII centuries and about how people try to solve this problems. Partly touches such role persons like Dimitry of Rostov and Petr Mogila. Including some interesting details about some educationreligious and cultural aspects of this time. In addition, it is about some selfidentification problems and some orthodox-catholic traditions vacillation, and how this problems are influenced to this nations history at all.
Report from the Nationwide Scientific Conference “Antinomies of democracy”, Podlesice, November 5–6, 2019
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