Author: Lorenzo Medici
Institution: University of Perugia
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6973-6639
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 25-46
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201902
PDF: siip/18/siip1802.pdf

Cultural diplomacy has always been an important tool in Italian foreign policy. Culture represented a significant resource already in the liberal period and was also widely used by Fascism. During the inter-war period, cultural promotion abroad aimed at spreading the regime’s political-social organizational model. In the second post-war period, cultural resources played a fundamental role in Italian international relations. The democratic government carried out a transition from an essentially propagandistic action, which Fascism implemented especially in the second half of 1930’s, to a cultural diplomacy more attentive to the issues of dialogue and cooperation. The soft power of culture grew in importance. Lacking effective diplomatic tools of a political and economic nature, the new ruling class promoted the nation’s cultural tradition. Although with means and personnel widely used already during the Fascist period, democratic Italy adopted an innovative cultural diplomacy with regard to premises and goals. This policy was apparently low-key and devoid of political themes, but in reality it was aimed at acquiring, in the long run, the friendship and the sympathy of the elites of other countries, so as to bolster political and economic relations. In the framework of a broader course of action, aimed at supporting multilateral diplomacy, the new leaders of post-Fascist Italy also promoted an international cultural cooperation which reversed the previous power politics and the unilateral assertion of Italian culture, but was still careful to defend the nation’s interests. This cooperative dimension was realized above all with the participation in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Dyplomacja kulturalna Włoch: Od propagandy do kooperacji kulturowej

Dyplomacja kulturowa zawsze była ważnym narzędziem w polityce zagranicznej Włoch. Kultura była ważną wartością już w okresie liberalnym, a także w znacznym zakresie używana przez włoskich faszystów. W okresie międzywojennym promocja kultury poza granicami kraju miała na celu szerzenie pewnego organizacyjnego modelu ustroju społeczno-politycznego. Po drugiej wojnie światowej zasoby kulturowe odgrywały fundamentalną rolę we włoskich stosunkach międzynarodowych. Rząd demokratyczny dokonał zmiany metod działań od zasadniczo propagandowych, stosowanych przez faszystów głównie w drugiej połowie lat 30. XX wieku, do dyplomacji kulturowej, bardziej wyczulonej na kwestie dialogu i współpracy. Soft power polityki kulturowej zaczęło nabierać coraz większego znaczenia. Ze względu na brak efektywnych narzędzi dyplomatycznych o charakterze politycznym i ekonomicznym, klasa rządząca skupiła się na promowaniu tradycji kulturowych swojego narodu. Demokratyczne Włochy wciąż wykorzystywały środki i personel zapewniony przez faszystów, jednak przyjęto innowacyjny program dyplomacji kulturowej z uwzględnieniem nowych przesłanek i celów. Taka polityka była umiarkowana i z pewnością pozbawiona motywów kulturowych, jednak w rzeczywistości i dłuższej perspektywie nastawiona była na pozyskiwanie kontaktów z nowymi krajami, zaprzyjaźnienie się z nimi i zyskanie sympatii ich elit, a w ostateczności na nawiązywanie z nimi relacji ekonomicznych i politycznych. W ramach struktury szeroko zakrojonych działań nastawionych na wspieranie multilateralnej dyplomacji, nowi liderzy post-faszystowskich Włoch promowali międzynarodową współpracę kulturową, która odeszła od torów polityki siły wyznaczonych przez poprzedni reżim, oraz uznanie integralności kulturowej Włoch. Mimo to pozostawali czujni, by chronić interesy narodowe. Wymiar zamierzonej przez nich współpracy był realizowany przede wszystkim poprzez uczestnictwo Włoch w UNESCO.

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