- Year of publication: 2021
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-8
- DOI Address: -
The photographic ritual: photography and nature in Colombia around 1900
Photographs of nature in Colombia around 1900 were to a large extent the first images that were taken of regions and populations. Therefore, despite the difficulty of being interpreted as documents, they allow us to understand ways of looking and analyzing, positioning and conditioning the landscapes represented. Based on intensive research in various public and private archives, is presented an analysis of the connections between landscape, nature and photography in Colombia. Through a semiological analysis, I seek to understand the way in which nature, an invisible element devoid of temporality, found its meaning and its own stylistic identity through photography.
Jesuit colleges in Cusco: San Bernardo and San Francisco Borja. Art and architecture in the light of the inventories of 1768
The most famous architectural complex associated with the Jesuit order in colonial Cusco, was the college and church of the Transfiguration, located in the main square of the city. Monks of the Society of Jesus focused on evangelisation and teaching, which led to creation of subsequent monastic foundations. There were two schools in Cusco: one of them was intended for descendants of conquistadors (Colegio de San Bernardo), and the other one for sons of Andean caciques (Colegio de San Francisco Borja). Each of them was located in its own architectural complex, and one of the necessary conceptual elements of the complexes was a chapel intended for students. There are quite a few sources and studies concerning the history of both schools, and the interior decoration of the chapels located at the colleges has been reconstructed on the basis of the preserved inventories, drawn up at the time of expulsion of Jesuits and takeover of their property. The author of the article concentrates on reconstruction of the decoration, showing it in the cultural and artistic context of the region.
A motif of guinea pigs in European painting of the Early Modern era
This paper focuses on European reception of the guinea-pig motif on the example of paintings from the 16th to 18th centuries. Interpretation of guinea pig’s significance in early modern Europe is interesting insofar as it concerns an animal with an already established cultural function. The homeland of guinea pig is South America, where it was bred for food but also played an important social and religious role. When it came to Europe, its original meaning fundamentally changed. As a new animal with exotic connotations, it gained the status of a valuable fauna specimen and soon became an extremely fashionable breeding animal among the upper classes. This evolution can be observed in the field of art. Zoological and scientific representations become the “natural habitat” for a guinea pig. Initially, a guinea-pig image appears in lexicons, and then in elaborate animalistic compositions, representing the widest possible spectrum of various fauna. The natural perspective, which included a guinea pig in the European bestiary, significantly influenced further development of, already independent, images of the animal. They became most popular at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, especially among artists associated with court circles. Created for wealthy collectors, these depictions reflected a peculiar fashion for this animalistic theme, as evidenced by mutual borrowings among painters taking up the motif in question.
Ebenezer Howard’s idea of the garden-city and its historical-cultural context in Europe and Latin America
This text analyses how the English urban and cultural heritage influenced the European and Latin American world of the 20th century, marked by the industrial revolution, in the context of the creation of new urban centres. The main question was how Ebenezer Howard’s idea of the garden city developed in Latin America and Europe. This article aims to analyse the historical and cultural context of their implementation in developed and developing countries. The research also aims to determine to how well this vision, described as utopian, has been realised in the studied cities, considered to be the most accurate realisations of Howard’s concept in both Europe and Latin America.
The motif of transformation in Julio Cortazar’s short story Axolotl
This paper aims to briefly tackle the issue of the alter ego and the metamorphosis in Latin American literature. For this reason, we shall take the story by Julio Cortázar entitled Axolotl as a reference point and evaluate the various interpretations of the myth and transformation in Cortázar’s work. Since we are not the very expression and measure of our thoughts (e.g. Julio Cortázar), our other self is always among us. The various existential relationships that we establish daily to confirm that we live our lives fulfilled by certainty and conviction, and that – staying in a permanent conflict with the world engulfed in an antagonistic relationship between the real and the unreal – they are a potent metaphor through which Cortázar evoques Thomas Mann or Franz Kafka, among others. Thus, the axolotl shall not be the only reason to analyze the story. We shall also see how this metaphor is rendered in literature.
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