- Year of publication: 2019
- Source: Show
- Pages: 3-8
- DOI Address: -
A song in honor of San Francisco or a funerary song for Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal? An interpretation of the so called Pipilcuicatl, “The Children’s Song”, registered in the manuscript of Cantares mexicanos
The article presents a critical interpretation of one of the songs collected in the 16th-century manuscript known as Cantares mexicanos. “The Children’s Song”, in Nahuatl Pipilcuicatl, is one of the few pieces of this manuscript provided with clear information on the context of its performance, which apparently should facilitate its correct interpretation. However, as the present analysis shows, the song in question is in fact a result of various reelaborations of the more ancient models. It is an overlap of diff erent semantic levels corresponding to diverse ideologies, objectives, events and socio-politic contexts, such as: the ancient indigenous rituals, funerary celebrations, Medieval and Renaissance Christian popular beliefs and aesthetics, as well as the contemporary Colonial aesthetics of the New Spain. The objective of this article is to indicate the possible meanings that might have been attributed to diff erent elements of this song by the Spaniards and the indigenous participants of the celebration.
The Blue Announcer of Death. From the popular beliefs of the Central Andes
This essay is a monographic draftattempt concerning one of the most widely known omens of disease and death throughout the native Andean cultures. Among many signs, interpreted as approaching death, the figure of bluebottle fly called in Quechan chiririnka has a key position, which extends from pre-Co- lombian times, and its popularity exceeds other similar signs of similar mea- ning. Up to this date, it retains its significance in funerary beliefs and functions in various forms of folklore, especially in songs. At the same time, it is also commonly thought to be an incarnation of human soul, what finds resemblance in folk beliefs and tales of mythic characteristics, including tropes found in in- digenous eschatology. This essay relies on ethnographic sources, and very im- portant contributions to this topic, which can be found in books and essays of José María Arguedas.
Symbolic death. Painting presenting allegory of Silence and Crucified Nun from Beaterium of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in St. Blaise Parish in Cusco
The article presents a painting which has never been reproduced or publicly displayed before. The work comes from the Beaterium of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in St. Blaise Parish in Cusco. It is a two-sided representation. The ob- verse side contains a figure of a nun in a Carmelite habit, who puts his hand to his mouth and orders silence, which is communicated not only by the gestu- re, but also by the inscription accompanying the representation. On the rever- se side we can see an image of a crucified nun. The painting used to function as a door leading to the novitiate, which could be established based on the archi- val photo. The article describes iconography of the work, as well as the sources for most of the inscriptions that accompany the images. The painting is presen- ted in a broader historical and cultural context of Cusco Beaterium functioning.
Argentinos, bestias, chaqwa y pishtacos. The experience of terror, cruelty and death in the collective consciousness of Andean villagers during the internal conflict in Peru
The problem of internal conflict in Peru is a popular research topic that has been analyzed from various scientific perspectives by both domestic and foreign researchers for almost four decades. In addition to the dominant historical and political approaches (mainly focused on structural features of war and its impact on the current shape of the state and society) as well as the anthropological ones (primarily devoted to socio-cultural sources and following reveals of the problem), a significant place is also occupied by the studies of violence, taken up by various disciplines. Application of this perspective is, however, an exceptionally complex task, since, as in the lens, it concentrates systems of links between phenomena and actors, whose figures cannot be clearly outlined. It is particularly evident in relation to forms, scale and perception of terror in the Andes. The article aims at looking for the answer to the question what was going to be the role of the title “terror, cruelty and death” in the military activities in the Peruvian province and how they ultimately influenced collective consciousness of Andean villagers and their attitudes in conflict. Therefore, the analysis concerns, first of all, forms and goals of violence in the Andes and the ways in which serranos visualized them, and then, reactions of the latter to the war experience of dehumanization, death and destruction.
Overcoming the fear of recovering the identity: the armed conflict in Colombia and the Bojayá massacre
This article demonstrates the violence in Colombia as a background to the historical events in the country and the way it led to the armed conflict which lasted for over the fifty years. This war continued, with the involvement of the Military Forces of Colombia, the police, the guerrilla and the paramilitary until it reached El Atrato, a very poor and vulnerable part of the country. That is where the massacre of Bojayá took place, one of the most violent acts in the recent history of Colombia. The outcome was a high rate of victims and countless number of stories full of pain and misery. However, the survivors, against all odds, started to overcome the fear and recover. In their culture abandoning the corpse was not accepted. In consequence, they started to fight for their ideals. The article focuses on the way the inhabitants of Bojayá regained their identity and their owning to strong bonds and traditions. It has been written based on academic research and on the leadership that the victims have achieved in the public and mass media field in Colombia. They managed to get the mortal remains of the members of their community exhumed and transferred to Medellin to be identified and, in front of their executioners and in front of the world, they sang their alabaos, they could tell their story that denounced the barbarism and demanded a better future.
Mysterium tremendum - human sacrifice as a liter ary motif in contemporary Latin-American prose fiction
The aim of this article is twofold: firstly, it examines the meaning and the role of the frightening Aztec ritual of human sacrifice in its original religious and political context. Human sacrifice was an integral part of the Aztec world view. It facilitated the communication between the supernatural forces and the human world through the interchange of vital energy. Human sacrifice also had a political meaning, as over time it intensified and was transformed into a formidable display of state power. Secondly, the article investigates the use of human sacrifice as a literary motif in modern Latin-American prose fiction. The selected examples illustrate how the Aztec ritual has acquired different connotative values, distant from its original denotation. It has been transformed into a symbol of historical violence, existential fears and irrational reality.
Colombian narco novel: a Thanatotic narrative
This article comprises an inventory of the motif of death within the narrative syntax of several Colombian narco novels. “Sicaresca” novels by Fernando Vallejo, Jorge Franco and Arturo Alape will be discussed. The construct of the characters, young contract killers, whose violent and premature deaths are seen as their fate, will be shown to display an indisputably “Thanatotic” facet. In the second part of this article, the ritual dimension of death, presented in the novels “Comandante Paraíso” by Gustavo Álvarez Gardeazábal and “Leopardo al sol” by Laura Restrepo, will be analysed. The last part will be dedicated to the iconic and symbolic dimension of Pablo Escobar’s death depicted in “El ruido de las cosas al caer” by Juan Gabriel Vásquez and “Happy birthday, capo” by José Libardo Porras.
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