Author: Nora Nimani Musa
Institution: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author: Mateja Dagarin Fojkar
Institution: University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 42-53
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/201901/tner5503.pdf

The presented study aimed to investigate students’ competence in English listening skills and vocabulary proficiency at elementary school level focusing on the correlation between students’ listening skills, vocabulary proficiency and out-of-school exposure. A total of 123 students of the 9th grade participated in the study. Standardized listening and vocabulary tests were used to assess the students’ listening and vocabulary skills followed by a questionnaire to find out the correlation between the students’ listening skills, vocabulary proficiency and out-of-school exposure. Results show that out-of-classroom exposure to English in audio and audio-visual forms is positively related with levels of English listening skills and vocabulary proficiency whereas there is no indication that playing video-games in any form in English may be related to levels of English listening skills and vocabulary proficiency.


  • Ashraf, H., Motlagh, F.G., & Salami, M. (2014). The impact of online games on learning English vocabulary by Iranian (Low-intermediate) EFL Learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 98, 286–291.
  • Bahrani, T., & Sim, T.S. (2012). Audiovisual news, cartoons, and films as sources of authentic language input and language proficiency enhancement. TOJET: The Turkish Online Jour­nal of Educational Technology, 11(4), 56–64.
  • Barbee, M. (2013). Extracurricular L2 input in a Japanese EFL context: Exposure, attitudes, and motivation. Second Language Studies, 32(1), 1–58.
  • Coady, J. & Huckin, T. (1999). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language: A Review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 181–193.
  • Ellis, N., & Collins, L. (2009). Input and second language acquisition: The roles of frequency, form, and function, Introduction to the special issue. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 329–33.
  • Goh, C. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28, 55–75.
  • Hajri, B.M., Woods, P.C., & Alavi, K.Z. (2010). The effect of viewing subtitled videos on vocabulary learning. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7(9), 37–42.
  • Hogan, T.P, Adolf, S.M., & Alonzo, C.N. 2014. On the importance of listening comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(3), 199–207.
  • Khaghaninejad, S.M., & Fahandejsaadi, R. (2016). Music and language learning. Shiraz: Shiraz University.
  • Khoii, R., and Sharififar, S. (2013). Memorization versus semantic mapping in L2 vocabulary acquisition. ELT Journal, 67(2), 199–209.
  • Krashen, S. (2009). The comprehension hypothesis extended. In T. Piske and M. Young-Scholten (Eds.) Input Matters in SLA. (pp. 81–94). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Kuppens, A.H. (2010). Incidental foreign language acquisition from media exposure. Learn­ing, Media and Technology, 35, 65–85.
  • Lefever, S. (2010). English skills of young learners in Iceland: I started talking English when I was 4 years old. It just bang…just fall into me.” Paper presented at Menntakvika Confer­ence, Reykjavik.
  • Mohamadkhani, K., Nazari Farokhi, E., & Nazari Farokhi, H. (2013). The effect of using audio files on improving listening comprehension. International Journal of Learning & Development, 3(1), 132–137.
  • Moyer, A. (2009). Input as a critical means to an end: Quantity and quality of experience in L2 phonological attainment. In T. Piske & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), Input matters in SLS. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  • Munoz, C. & Lindgren, E. (2011). Out-of-school factors – the home. In C. Munoz, & J. Enever (Ed.), ELLiE, Early Language Learning in Europe (pp. 103–124). England: British Council.
  • Nunan, D. (1998). Second Language Teaching and Learning, Boston, USA: Heinle, Cengage Learning.
  • Ojimaa, S. (2011). Age and amount of exposure to a foreign language during childhood: Behavioral and ERP data on the semantic comprehension of spoken English by Japanese children. Neuroscience Research, 70(2), 197–205.
  • Poon, A. (1992). Action research: A study on using TV news to improve listening proficiency. Research Report, 14, 1–70.
  • Rankin, Y., Gold, R. and Gooch, B. (2006) 3D Role-playing games as language learning tools. Proceedings of EuroGraphics 2006 Conference, Vol. 25. Vienna: Austria.
  • Rapaport, W.J. (2005). In defense of contextual vocabulary acquisition: How to do things with words in context. Proceedings of the 5th International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modeling and Using Context (Context-05), (pp.394–409). Berlin: Springer.
  • Reinhardt, J., & Sykes, J.M. (2014). Special issue commentary: Digital game activity in L2 teaching and learning. Language Learning & Technology, 18(2), 2–8.
  • Safranj, J. (2015). Advancing listening comprehension through movies. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 169–173.
  • Tunçdemir, E., & Akbarov, A. (2016). Foreign language learners’ attitudes towards the use of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in English Classes. International Journal of ELT, Linguistics and Comparative Literature, 4(1), 17–23.
  • Vahdat, S., & Behbahani, R.A. (2013). The effect of video games on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. The Reading Matrix, 13(1), 61–71.
  • Vandergrift, L. (2003). Orchestrating strategy use: Toward a model of the skilled second language listener. Language Learning, 53(3), 463–496.
  • Yip, F.W.M., & Kwan, A.C.M. (2006). Online vocabulary games as a tool for teaching and learning English vocabulary. Educational Media International, 43(3), 233–249.

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart