Author: Anna Perkowska-Klejman
Institution: The Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw
Author: Anna Odrowaz-Coates
Institution: The Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 77-88
DOI Address:
PDF: tner/201901/tner5506.pdf

The paper contains advanced statistical analysis, original methods and a significant contribution to the claim that measurement of reflexivity is possible. It is based on original empirical research using a sample of 334 students from different faculties and educational levels. It utilises a qualitative questionnaire containing a 4-level reflexivity scale, designed by Kember et al. (2000), translated into the Polish language and context. The aim of the study was to identify whether students’ reflexivity levels can be associated with the level of their study, taking into account possible masking effects of their age. Differences were tested for faculty and system of training (full time or part-time). Analysis confirms the strongest relation between reflexive thinking, system of tuition and level of studies. There was no connection found between reflexive thinking and the faculty of study or the respondents’ gender.


  • Amidu, A. (2012). Exploring Real Estate StudentsLearning Approaches, Reflective Thinking and Academic Performance. Paper presented at 48th ASC Annual International Conference, Birmingham, UK. 11 April – 14 April 2012. ASC Proceedings of the Annual Conference. (p. 10).
  • Basol, G. & Gencel E.E. (2013). Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice 13(2), 941–946.
  • Baxter Magolda, M.B. (1992). Knowing and Reasoning in College: gender related patterns in students’ intellectual development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Boyd, L.D. (2008). Development of reflective judgment in the pre-doctoral dental clinical curriculum. European Journal of Dental Education, 12, 149–158. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00511.x
  • Boud, D., Keogh R., & Walker D. (1985). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning, London: Kogan Page.
  • Dawe, G., Jucker, R. & Martin, S. (2005) Sustainable development in higher education: Current practice and future developments. A report for the Higher Education Academy.
  • Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston, DC: Health and Company.
  • Espinosa E.B. & Mata J.G., (2008). Changes in the level of reflective thinking of prospective primary teachers of English over the practicum. In C. Harris & J.M. Pinar Sanz (Eds.) New Tendency in English Teacher Education
  • Fischer, K.W., & Pruyne, E. (2002). Reflective thinking in adulthood: Emergence, devel­opment, and variation. In J. Demick & C. Andreoletti (Eds.) The Handbook of Adult Development (pp. 169–198). New York: Plenum.
  • Ghanizadeh, A. & Jahedizadeh, S. (2017). Validating the Persian Version of Reflective Thinking Questionnaire and Probing Iranian University Students’ Reflective Thinking and Academic Achievement. International Journal of Instruction, 10(3), 209–226.
  • Kadivar P., Tanha Z., Farzad V. (2012), The Relationship between epistemological beliefs, learning approaches, reflective thinking and academic achievement. Journal of Psychol­ogy 16, 251–65.
  • Kalk, K., Luik, P., Taimalu, M., & Täht, K. (2014). Validity and reliability of two instruments to measure reflection: A confirmatory study. Trames: A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 18(2), 121–134.
  • King, P., & Kitchener, K.S. (2004). Reflective judgment: Theory and research on the devel­opment of epistemic assumptions through adulthood. Educational Psychologist, 39, 5–8.
  • Kember, D., Leung, D., Jones, A., & Loke, A.Y. (2000). Development of a Questionnaire to measure the Level of Reflective Thinking. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Educa­tion, 25(4), 382–395.
  • Ko, H.H., & Aung P. Ei P., (2015). The Study of Reflective Thinking of University Students. Yangon University of Education Research Journal, 5, 1, 1–16.
  • Lucas, U., & Leng Tan, P. (2006). Assessing levels of reflective thinking: the evaluation of an instrument for use within accounting and business education. Retrieved from
  • [accessed 23.04.2017].
  • Mahasneh, A.M. (2013). The relationship between Reflective Thinking and Learning Styles among Sample of Jordanian University Students. Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (21), 50–56.
  • Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Naghdipour B. & Emeagwali O.L. (2013). Assessing the Level of Reflective Thinking in ELT Students, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 83, 266–271.
  • Phan, H.P. (2007). Examination of student learning approaches, reflective thinking, and self-efficacy beliefs at the University of the South Pacific: A path analysis. Educational Psychology, 27(6), 789–806.
  • Phan, H.P. (2008). Unifying different theories of learning: Theoretical framework and empirical evidence. Educational Psychology, 28(3), 325–340.
  • Paul R. & Elder L. (2002). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of your Professional and Personal Life. Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
  • Rogers, R.R. (2001). Reflection in higher education: A conceptual analysis. Innovative Higher Education, 26 (1), 37–57.
  • Schön, D. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner, Basic Books, New York,
  • Snyder L.G. & Snyder,M.J. (2008). Teaching Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills, The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal L (2), 90–99.
  • Thorpe, K. (2004). Reflective learning journals: from concept to practice. Reflective Practice 5 (3), 328–343.
  • Yuen Lie Lim, L.A. (2011). A comparison of students’ reflective thinking across different years in a problem-based learning environment, Instructional Science, 39(2), 171–188.

Wiadomość do:



© 2017 Adam Marszałek Publishing House. All rights reserved.

Projekt i wykonanie Pollyart