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Author: Karolina Tybuchowska-Hartlińska
E-mail: karolina.tybuchowska@uwm.edu.pl
Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 155-161
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019109
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019109.pdf

Abstract:

This paper is the first step to fill a gap in the studies on the position of mayors in European local government systems. The first part of the paper will be devoted to critical analysis of theoretical and methodological studies on the position and selection of mayors. The second part will focus on verifying the proposed hypotheses. In the conclusions, an attempt will be made to present a profile of local democracy in CEE countries.

Tags: local government CEE Countries Mayors

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Author: Łukasz Jakubiak
E-mail: lukasz.jakubiak@uj.edu.pl
Institution: Jagiellonian University
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 135-154
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019108
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019108.pdf

Abstract:

The paper deals with specific links between presidential and parliamentary elections in contemporary France. The main goal is to demonstrate that the timing of the two types of political events is a significant factor preserving the configuration of a pro-presidential majority fact as one of the possible variants of French semi-presidentialism. This raises the question of the role of both elections as instruments for controlling the process of setting up a space of political rivalry that could be perceived as optimal from the viewpoint of ruling camps. The author analyses possibilities to provide the convergence of presidential and parliamentary elections under the conditions of a seven-year presidential term as well as after its shortening to five years in 2000. Hence, of particular importance is the impact of some mechanisms used in this field on the institutional logic of the French political system. Specific application of constitutional tools and some normative changes introduced in previous years cause the extent of the aforementioned control to be now much greater than in the first decades of the Fifth Republic. Looking at the convergence of both types of elections from the perspective of the evolution of the existing political system, the author argues that it is legitimate to divide the whole period of the Fifth Republic into three sub-periods: 1. the absence of electoral convergence (1958–1981); 2. partial electoral convergence (1981– –2002); full electoral convergence (since 2002). Due to the acceptance of the pro-presidential paradigm, the latter formula is now definitely preferred and supported by legal regulations, which affects the flexibility of French semi-presidentialism (significantly reduced, but not fully eliminated, probability of cohabitation).

Tags: Presidential Elections parliamentary elections electoral calendar France Fifth Republic semi-presidentialism

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Author: Marek Musioł
E-mail: marek.musiol@uwr.edu.pl
Institution: University of Wrocław (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 115-134
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019107
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019107.pdf

Abstract:

The article addresses current questions concerning the Kurdish situation before and after the invasion and expansion of ISIS. It applied the theory of securitisation to study the tangled circumstances and frameworks of Kurdish claims, underlining their attempts at gaining their much-desired independence. This elaboration enables one to recognise the genesis and the local, regional and global context of international actions vis-à-vis Kurdish interests, and the possible supporters and opponents of the Kurdish project of statehood in the Middle East. It portrays also the current perception of Kurdish efforts to establish their own national and legal subjectivity that must be recognised by the majority of state actors in order to meet the indispensable criteria of international law.
This article is particularly important in the context of recent developments in the Middle East. First of all, it refers to pressures, as well as openly offensive actions targeting the interests and territories controlled by the Kurds in Turkey during the existence of the so-called Islamic State. Secondly, it reflects on actors’ reactions in the international arena, including the countries of the Middle East, towards the independence referendum in Iraqi Kurdistan, as well as on direct actions aimed at shaping a new geopolitical order after the fall of ISIS (attack by Iraqi troops in Kirkuk or the Turkish army in Afrin).

Tags: securitisation constitutive and declarative international recognition Kurds Middle East independence

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Author: Kazimierz Pierzchała
E-mail: k.pierzchala68@o2.pl
Institution: John Paul II Catholic Univeristy in Lublin (Poland)
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9972-943X
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 103-111
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019106
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019106.pdf

Abstract:

Experts on information competition between Russia and Western countries are convinced that president Vladimir Putin plans a war against the West as a long-term operation. It is directed on two fronts: internal and the more effective external one. Both can be developed in every country of the World; the opponent may be a compatriot but the ally may be a foreigner. Fortunately, in the West the effectiveness of these operations is lower. Confrontation with the West the Kremlin has many advantages: parental and controlled informational space, technical implements, huge experience based on expert knowledge, likewise a longstanding practice in conducting informational operations. Those actions are strongly concentrated and there are widely used digital platforms and also, they popularise the contents in harmony with Russian Federation politics. Their aim is not only forming internal and external public opinion properly and in line with the Kremlin’s interests, because as the annexation of Crimea has demonstrated that their aim is construction of a new reality of the world. Paradoxically, in the Russian Federation’s policy, media freedom and political pluralism are considered as a weakness of the West. Many communities which have different benefits are sensitive to the Kremlin’ s propaganda.

Tags: West Putin Russia information warfare

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Author: Aleksander M. Lubojemski
Institution: Leiden University (Netherlands)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 90-102
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019105
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019105.pdf

Abstract:

The changing political system of the XXI century has brought many shifts not only in the global balance of power but also in various regional balances scattered across the globe. The rise of national power in countries beforehand classified as small powers or other equivalents has forced to once again place these states in the newly created balances of power. Amongst these states is Poland, whose national power has grown substantially in the last decade. Hence, it is necessary to analyze how Poland compares to other states in the international system, on a global and regional level, and through this evaluate what Poland’s international position is. The article aims at assessing Polish national power and roles in regional initiatives to examine how Poland is placed in the global and regional balance of power.

Tags: economic strength militaristic capabilities regional power middle power national power Eastern Europe Poland

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Author: Renata Podgórzańska
E-mail: renata.podgorzanska@wp.pl
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 67-89
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019104
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019104.pdf

Abstract:

Analyzing Poland’s current activity regarding the influx of refugees and the formulated attitude towards action in the field of restriction and control of the influx undertaken by European and international institutions, one should notice increasing reluctance to accept immigrants. What is more, there is a growing trend in the public debate in Poland to identify (to correlate) the influx of refugees with the problem of security. Although Poland is neither located on the main transit routes nor a destination for immigrants (including refugees), there is a process of systematically including this issue in the public discourse and analyzing the consequences of the potential increase in the influx of immigrants in the context of state security. Relationships that arise at the interface between migration and security point to the process of securitization of immigration, which involves integrating migration issues into a catalogue of state security threats and considering them through the lens of possible threats to the receiving societies.

Tags: immigration securitization security refugees migration crisis

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Author: Inga B. Kuźma
Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
Author: Edyta Pietrzak
Institution: Łódź University of Technology (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 49-64
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019103
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019103.pdf

Abstract:

The article deals with the subject of relations between theories of violence and the category of collective memory in relation to women’s war stories. The text introduces the issue of war and conflict, understanding the theory of violence, the category of collective memory and female war narratives, as well as the ways of their political interpretation. The interpretation is crucial because of method used in the research, meaning hermeneutics, but also because of the, presented here, perspective of polyphony.

Tags: herstory violence collective memory

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Author: Jarosław Piątek
E-mail: tankpanc@wp.pl
Institution: University of Szczecin (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 36-48
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019102
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019102.pdf

Abstract:

In spite of defining the role of various measures of security policy implementation the weight of one has been quite unequivocally assessed for the current policy. The main position for contemporary Poland is to be taken by the armed forces.
Under these conditions, the Polish Army has become a basic element of the defense system of Poland not only in terms of image. It is not surprising then that currently the armed forces have received a wide range of tasks regarding security – both internal and external. President Duda and the government of Law and Justice proudly show the 2 percent of GDP spent on defense and an even higher target, at the latest in 2030. However, this does not create a perspective that would allow “hurray” optimism. The key to describing the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland seems to be their ability to respond to the revolution in the field of military and the ability to modernize.
Despite the plans of the Ministry of National Defense and declarations given in media, this process faces a number of difficulties. Not only do we create “abstract” visions of needs for the current policy, but we also offend our partners and those that are still our allies.
The arms policy, so important from the point of view of this “self-sufficiency”, was brought to the accusations of lobbying, corruption, and fraud; not only do we not pay attention to our own needs, but we also create innovative concepts for the current policy that cause us to wander in dilettantism.
It seems that the shape of the implementation of the modernization of the Armed Forces is affected not only by the current policy. To a large extent, the condition of the Polish arms industry is also a decisive factor in the absorption of modernization.

Tags: armed forces modernization the Polish Army threats security policy Challenges armed forces

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Author: Abdullah Metin Durmuş
Institution: Başkent University (Turkey)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 11-35
DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019101
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019101.pdf

Abstract:

This article is based on the idea that it is necessary to develop a quantitative method to calculate power of international actors, which will enable scholars to analyse international conflicts. The Global Potential Power Distribution Chart, which is calculated based on three main characteristics of international actors, namely population, territory and economic power, shows “potential power of states and international organisations”. It may be called “Durmuş Scale of Power (DSoP)”. The chart is a comprehensive indicator with considerable accuracy and 100 % objectivity. In this article, potential powers of international actors have been calculated for years 1987, 2004 and 2015, which gives a clear overview of the potential power distribution (balance of power) of the World regarding states and as well as international organisations. Potential military powers of some states and international organisation in year 2015 have also been calculated. This research proves by means of a contemporary approach applied and a quantitative method developed that, the World is multipolar since 2004, and China is, potentially, the most powerful state of the World since 2015. The method introduced in this article were sufficient enough to explain the effects of the enlargement of NATO and EU, EU after BREXIT, reform of the Security Council of the United Nations and instrumental enough to provide a peaceful understanding for the self-determination issue of Kosova. There are three conclusions to this research: 1) The method “Durmuş Scale of Power” is calculated is reliable because everybody with a scientific calculator or a computer can easily calculate potential power of a state provided that he or she has reliable data for territory, population and GDP. 2) “Global Potential Power Distribution Chart” is a comprehensive Chart which shows “balance of power” at a specific year. It enables us to compare power of states and international organisations in different years. 3) It is convenient to use “Durmuş Scale of Power” while analysing issues of international relations.

Tags: Durmuş Scale of Power Conflict Resolution Power Politics United Nations European Union NATO international relations theory

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Author: Agnieszka Szpak
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Author: Joanna Modrzyńska
Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University (Poland)
Author: Robert Gawłowski
Institution: WSB Universities (Poland)
Year of publication: 2019
Source: Show
Pages: 5-8
DOI Address: -
PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019100.pdf

Abstract:

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