мягкая сила

  • Miękka siła Chin

    Author: Adam Paweł Olechowski
    E-mail: adaole@wp.pl
    Institution: Kolegium Jagiellońskie Toruńska Szkoła Wyższa
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 99-116
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181706
    PDF: npw/17/npw1706.pdf

    China’s soft power

    The notion of soft power introduced by American political scientist J. S. Nye is becoming increasingly popular not only in science but also in journalism. In short, this term should be understood as the use of ideology, culture and diplomacy to build the international position of a given state. The masters in the application of soft power are generally considered Western states. However, it is forgotten that for many centuries before the West soft power to build its power was successfully used by China. Also today, rebuilding its international power, China is using soft power in its mastery of the world.

  • Rozwój chińskiej soft power w Azji Centralnej – szanse i wyzwania

    Author: Marek Borys
    E-mail: m.borys@akademia.mil.pl
    Institution: Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 111-129
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181806
    PDF: npw/18/npw1806.pdf

    The development of Chinese soft power in Central Asia – opportunities and challenges

    The article presents analysis of the development of China’s soft power in Central Asia. Since 2005, China has been trying to promote Chinese language and culture in Central Asia. Institutes of Confucius began to appear in the region. There are currently 13 of them. More and more youth from this region are learning Chinese. They also go to China to study at Chinese universities. Learning Chinese language increases the prospects of professional development and employment for people from the region. However, China still has a long way to achieve a satisfactory level of promoting its culture in the region. There are accusations that Beijing wants to train the Central Asian elites in line with the Chinese model. Central Asian states are, however, particularly sensitive to their cultural heritage. Cultural independence is among the foreign policy priorities of these countries. Beijing should continue to increase efforts to create a positive image in the countries of the region. The new Silk Road is becoming an important element of diplomacy to promote Chinese soft power.

  • Zasada nieingerencji w sprawy wewnętrzne innego kraju oraz jej miejsce w polityce zagranicznej Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

    Author: Marcin Adamczyk
    E-mail: marcin.amadeusz.adamczyk@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Author: Magdalena Debita
    E-mail: magdalena.debita@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-32
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018201
    PDF: so/14/so1401.pdf

    The principle of non-interference in another country internal affairs and its role in People’s Republic of China foreign policy

    This essay is an attempt to elaborate the role of state sovereignty and the resulting principle of non-interference in the law and practice of international relations. Authors undertook an attempt to map out the course of the evolutionary process of changing the perception of these rules and the relationship between the concept of state sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in the light of the most important acts of international law. Authors found a need to answer the question about whether and when interference in another country policy is legally and actually permissible. Moreover the goal of the article is to describe and to explain the role of non-interference principle in China’s foreign policy after year 1949. In order to achieve the stated assumption, authors analyze its historical determinant (dated back to the mid of nineteenth century) and also following, after the end of World War II, process of seeking support in international law, in face of two imperialism, which were adversarial to each other. Authors also consider the reasons for China’s economic success in Africa in the context of the principle of non-interference, to finally move into the issue regarding the evolution of the sovereignty perception and non-interference policy among Chinese decision-makers.

  • Neoosmańska polityka w Bośni i Hercegowinie i jej wpływ na stosunki etniczne w kraju

    Author: Katarzyna Wasiak
    E-mail: katarzynawasiak1993@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 92-114
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020207
    PDF: so/18/so1807.pdf

    Neo-Ottomanism Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in the Country

    Turkish foreign policy for many years has been based on the concept of strategic depth formulated by Ahmet Davutoğlu. Nowadays, the concept remains a base of Turkish softpower diplomacy addressed to many countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. The main sources of the foreign policy are the traditional historical experiences of the Ottoman empire and islamic culture. This article analyzes the Turkish softpower diplomacy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nowadays, Turkey is focusing on the Ottoman past, as well as on the events of the 1990s: the civil war and genocide. By This way Ankara is gaining just Bosnian-muslim community support. The main question is why Turkey is leading the foreign policy in such a way? And what impact does this have on Bosnian contemporary ethnic relations?

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