Си Цзиньпин

  • Rosja Władimira Putina a Chiny Xi Jinpinga. O wpływie przywódców politycznych na politykę w państwach autorytarnych: przypadki rosyjski i chiński

    Author: Michał Lubina
    E-mail: michal.lubina@uj.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 41-62
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20181802
    PDF: npw/18/npw1802.pdf

    Putin’s Russia and Xi’s China. The Influence of Political Leaders on Politics in Authoritarian Countries: Case Studies of Russia and China

    In political science an accent on individuals (political leaders) in researching politics is neither popular nor advocated one. In authoritarian countries like Russia or China, however, political leaders and their personalities are a crucial factor in trying to understand the political processes there. Both Vladimir Putin in Russia and Xi Jinping in China have dominated their respective political systems. This, combined with good state of Russia-China relations makes it an interesting case study of the influence of political leaders on authoritarian countries. Both Putin and Xi are new type of leaders: they both follow the main ideas of political realism (though with “national differences”) and they share a 19th century outlook on the global affairs (“concert of powers”) yet they use contemporary means to fulfil these interests. Their personal understanding provides a predictability and stability: both Putin and Xi function in accordance with balance of power and respect for zones of influence concepts. That is why differences in other spheres, like Russia’s and China’s approaches to the USA do not influence the general good mood of Sino-Russian relationship.

  • Reakcja Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej na wojnę hybrydową w Syrii

    Author: Paweł Bielicki
    E-mail: bielicki11@gmail.com
    Institution: Towarzystwo Azji i Pacyfiku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5015-6869
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 76-97
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20213004
    PDF: npw/30/npw3004.pdf

    The People’s Republic of China’s Response to the Hybrid War in Syria

    The main purpose of the paper is to present the most important determinants and dependencies characterizing the policy of the People’s Republic of China towards hybrid war in Syria since 2011. The paper starts with the definition of hybrid war and its most important determinants. In next part of the article, the role Syria that plays in China’s political strategy has been described. At the outset, relations between Beijing and Damascus during the Cold War and immediately after its completion have been analyzed, when the Chinese side approached with a considerable distance to wider involvement in the Middle East, including Syria, having own internal difficulties, tense relations with the United States and the pro-soviet and then pro-russian position of Damascus. Next, Beijing’s views on the outbreak of the war in Syria have been mentioned, pointing to the most important determinants of the Chinese politics and the ideas for resolving it proposed by the Chinese Communist Party. In addition, goals that the Middle Kingdom wants to achieve in Syria have been presented in the global and economic aspect. The attitude of the communist power to the problem of rebuilding Syria has also been put into account. In conclusion, it has been addressed whether in the era of China’s growing assertiveness on the international arena, a modification of the Chinese position, should be expected.

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