21st Century

  • The Construction of Civil Local Communities – the Challenge of the 21st Century

    Author: Agnieszka Lipska–Sondecka
    Institution: Koszalin Higher School of Humanities (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 60-69
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013005
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013005.pdf

    The modern world is very complex and complicated matter. New communication technologies have changed perception of time and space, the states and their governments are no longer the main actors on a public life stage. Unimaginably rapid progress of science and technology has been the main reason for which more and more people do not understand or have clear difficulties in assimilating and using the achievements of civilization. Economy based on knowledge and development of innovative society forced modern homo sapiens to faster absorption of changes, flexibility in action and much greater mobility than ever before.

  • The Influence of Doi Moi on the Internal Security of Vietnam in the 21st Century

    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 297-316
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013019
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013019.pdf

    The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, just like other countries, functions in determined conditions which influence the way of determining and understanding the security and shaping of the security policy. There prevails a division to problems of an internal and external nature. While talking about and indicating global problems which in consequence can influence the internal security of a country, challenges and threats that countries face need to be noticed. These are ecological, demographic, political, economic and social threats. While looking at factors determining the internal security of a country, special attention needs to be paid to the state of relations and its surroundings, a state of system stability, a level of social peace, a level of public safety and a level of public order.

  • Itogi rossijjsko-belorusskikh otnoshenijj: 2000–2016

    Author: Joachim Diec
    E-mail: iriew.uj@interia.eu
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 79-91
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017105
    PDF: npw/12/npw2017105.pdf

    The essence of Russia’s relations with Belarus after the end of the 20th century boils down to a specific kind of balance. Thanks to its presence in the institutional forms of close cooperation such as the CSTO, the Union State or the Eurasian Economic Union Minsk enjoys the openness of Russian market and very low prices of imported resources (especially crude oil and gas). What Moscow receives in return can be classified as a sort of intangible goods: greater prestige and a „friendly hegemonic” position in international relations. The balance of the game falls in favor of Lukashenko who takes advantage of his country’s location between the Russian Federation and the EU: Moscow is permanently blackmailed with the possibility of Minsk’s hypothetical turn toward the Western partners.

  • Some Comments on Vietnam’s Security in the 21st Century

    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    E-mail: kkos@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8240-5858
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 71-78
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201904
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201904.pdf

    The main objective set by many countries is ensuring security. The means to accomplish this goal are the armed forces, obliged to guarantee safe functioning of the state and its citizens. There are states, for which maintaining a powerful, modern army has enormous significance for their superpower status, for their preparedness to a potential conflict or as a deterrent for the neighbouring states. Therefore, in the following text I will deal with the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, because of its history, and especially due to the region where it is situated - one of the hottest places on Earth, full of misunderstandings, disputes and conflicts causing that the states situated there, including Vietnam, are modernising their armies.

  • The Attitude towards John Paul II and References Made to His Person by the Polish Parliamentary Parties from 2005 till 2019 – with Particular Emphasis on the Polish People’s Party, the Law and Justice, the Democratic Left Alliance, and the Civic Platform

    Author: Radosław Kubicki
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 99-120
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.08
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6808.pdf

    The purpose of the article is to determine what is the contemporary attitude of the most important Polish parliamentary parties to John Paul II, which was done by examining the frequency of referring to and commemorating the person of the pope by individual political parties. In order to achieve the established objective, the activity of individual clubs, circles, MPs and senators in the Polish parliament was analyzed. Furthermore, the analysis of program documents and press organs of Polish political parties was carried out. Studies have shown that the greatest contribution to the commemoration and promotion of a deceased pope in Poland is made by the Law and Justice. The Polish People’s Party also refers to John Paul II in public, but rarely does it in official program documents. Occasionally, and more rarely recently, the pope is also referred to by the Civic Platform. In contrast, politicians from the Democratic Left Alliance usually do not refer to John Paul II, but they respect him as a great Pole and spiritual leader.

  • Wybrane aspekty stosunków chińsko-francuskich w XXI wieku

    Author: Marzena Mruk
    E-mail: mmruk@us.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3529-0365
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-94
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20202705
    PDF: npw/27/npw2705.pdf

    Selected Aspects of Chinese-French Relations in the 21st Century

    The relationship of the People’s Republic of China with the French Republic was initiated in 1964 and has been constantly evolving since then. The 21st century and the changes taking place in the international system have contributed to the growth of China’s position in the international arena as a superpower, while France has been trying to maintain its dominant position in the European Union for two decades. Both countries have a lot in common and divide. The element that binds both countries together is their status in the UN Security Council, their ambivalent attitude to the superpower status of the United States, and the mutual willingness to expand economic cooperation. Among the factors that differ Beijing and Paris, there are rivalries in Africa and the approach to human rights. This does not change the fact that France is one of the main directions of China’s European policy and makes it one of Beijing’s most important political and economic partners. The international situation that both the Chinese and French governments have to face may contribute to a change in bilateral relations in the near future and the need for both sides to look for another partner in the region - in Europe through China and in Asia through France. This article aims to highlight the most important aspects of Sino-French relations in the 21st century, with particular emphasis on political and economic cooperation, especially in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Outlining these aspects in the relations between China and France determines the construction of the article, which consists of three main parts corresponding to the relevant issues. The aim of this article is also to answer a number of research questions, such as: what were the most important controversial issues in Sino-French relations? Has the title of the most important politicians at the head of China and France influenced bilateral relations? Do relations with France’s changing relations affect the international position of the PRC? Among the research materials used in this article, Polish, English and French-language literature can be mentioned, because access to Chinese materials is extremely difficult, including their translation into other languages. A number of research methods have been used to analyze this research problem, including historical analysis and description or decision method.

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