Armenia

  • Threats to Armenia’s Security in the National Strategy and Practice with Special Emphasis on External Security

    Author: Krystyna Gomółka
    E-mail: Krystyna.Gomolka@zie.pg.edu.pl
    Institution: Gdańsk University of Technology (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 74-90
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017105
    PDF: ppsy/46-1/ppsy2017105.pdf

    The national security strategy adopted in 2007 provided a detailed definition of security and identified its threats. The key threat to the Armenian state was considered to be the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The document indicated the Collective Security Treaty Organisation main guarantor of security, with Russia being Armenia’s main partner in bilateral relations. The second position in the strategy was assigned to cooperation with the NATO and the OSCE. One of the priorities identified was to intensify the economic and trade connections with the European Union and participation in the European Neighbourhood Policy as a step towards integration with European structures. As to bilateral relations, the most significant were Armenia’s contacts with Georgia and Iran. If we compare the assumptions of the strategy with the policy pursued by Armenia after 2007, it is clear that the measures taken are in line with the provisions of the document. By the end of 2016, the most serious threat to Armenia – the Nagorno-Karabakh issue – remained unresolved. Russia reinforced its position as Armenia’s strategic ally. The talks conducted between Armenia and the NATO are of little significance in view of the obligations assumed by Armenia. The same goes for the talks with the European Union after Armenia’s withdrawal from signing the association agreement, accession to the Eurasian Economic Union on 01 January 2015 and signing bilateral agreements with the Russian Federation. 

  • The Consequences of the Nagorno–Karabakh War for Azerbaijan and the Undeniable Reality of Khojaly Massacre: A View from Azerbaijan

    Author: Ismayil Isayev
    E-mail: ismayil_ir@yahoo.com
    Institution: University of Vienna (Austria)
    Author: Shamkhal Abilov
    E-mail: shamkhalabilov@yahoo.com
    Institution: Qafqaz University in Baku (Azerbaijan) & Leipzig University (Germany)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 291-303
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016022
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016022.pdf

    This article seeks to study the consequences of the Nagorno–Karabakh war for Azerbaijan: thus analyzes findings on occupied territories, casualties, and damages of the war from economic, political, and social perspectives. The utmost brutality and atrocity of the overall conflict is memorized with Khojaly Massacre committed against Azerbaijani civilians on 26 February 1992. Hence, the article unveils evidences through the scrutiny of secondary data from academic sources, publications, and news materials published by international media. The particular focus of the study is concentrated on to what extend special plan was prepared deliberately for ethnic cleansing in Khojaly during the Nagorno–Karabakh war. 

  • International Law and the Nagorno–Karabakh War: Opinion on Political Aspects

    Author: Sadir Surkhay Mammadov
    E-mail: centrum.polskie.bsu@gmail.com
    Institution: Baku Slavic University (Azerbaijan)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 385-390
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016028
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016028.pdf

    The opinion report considers relations between international norms, Azerbaijan’s national legal system and political understandings of the Nagorno–Karabakh conflict. It discusses classification of Armenian actions in a context of the international law’s development and an impact of international regulations on national criminal codes. Therefore, it presents the Azerbaijani perspective on major political aspects of the Nagorno–Karabakh War and international response to Armenian occupation of Azerbaijan’s territories. Moreover, it evaluates Armenian actions in the region with reference to the definition of genocide and international policy of its prevention. In general, the opinion report shows how the Azerbaijani society understands the conflict and how it may be classified on the basis of the Soviet law (as acts of terror has started in the late 1980s), the international law and the contemporary Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan. As a result, it is not only a report that introduces the Azerbaijan’s perspective on the issue, but it can also be recognised as an interesting source to understand how the Azerbaijani people label actions of their neighbouring nation. 

  • Stosunki handlowe i inwestycyjne Polski z Armenią po 2004 roku

    Author: Izabela Borucińska-Dereszkiewiecz
    E-mail: Izabela.Borucinska@zie.pg.gda.pl
    Institution: Politechnika Gdańska, Poland
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 142-166
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2017409
    PDF: npw/15/npw2017409.pdf

    The paper explores the development of trade and investment relations between Poland and Armenia in conditions of EU membership and in the first year of Armenia presence within the Eurasian Economic Union. The aim of the study is to determine the changes in the size and structure of trade and foreign investment both partners, as well as the identification of key factors influencing the evolution of the Polish-Armenian cooperation in this regard. Armenia both economically and politically is the relatively minor significant Poland’s partner. In the analyzed period, one can observe an increase in bilateral trade, but the growth of value and dynamics of Polish exports was more stable than imports. Small foreign investment, both Polish in Armenia and Armenian in Poland, is the area with untapped potential of bilateral cooperation. Poland’s membership in the EU was one of the factors that positively influenced on the intensification of bilateral trade and investment relations. In turn, Armenia’s entry to Eurasian Economic Union leads to the prediction that it will be a determinant which would have negative impact on Polish-Armenian cooperation in the long-term. There are a serious risk that the new agreement between the EU and Armenia will not be able to significantly reduce the impact of that factor.

  • Przebieg współpracy gospodarczej między Polską a państwami Partnerstwa Wschodniego po 1992 roku

    Author: Karolina Kotulewicz-Wisińska
    E-mail: kotulewk@uek.krakow.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7416-4898
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 83-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212904
    PDF: npw/29/npw2904.pdf

    The course of economic cooperation between Poland and the Eastern Partnership countries after 1992

    The article presents the current state of conditions for the development of economic ties between Poland and the Eastern Partnership countries after 1992. Over the next few years, relations between Poland and the former USSR states gradually evolved as a result of the introduced economic reforms, the opening of economies and changes in the international environment. From the formal and legal point of view, the development of trade and the broader economic ties between Poland and the Eastern Partnership countries began in 1991, and we have had adequate, relatively comparable statistical data since 1995. The most important changes took place when Poland joined the European Union. An important platform for intensifying cooperation with the former USSR states was created by the launch of the EU Eastern Partnership initiative, which covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Therefore, the study covered the state of economic ties between Poland and the Eastern Partnership countries. The study attempts to show the place of Poland in the foreign trade of the EaP countries and vice versa, outlining the trend of the dynamics of trade between the above-mentioned partners and determining the degree of complementarity of the trade structure.

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