artificial intelligence

  • Sztuczna inteligencja a teorie domyślania Historia i wybrane podejścia do sztucznej inteligencji

    Author: Bożena Pięta
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 113-126
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kimwe2019110
    PDF: kim/2019_1/kim2019110.pdf

    Artificial intelligence and default theories

    Formal logic has been an important part of development of artificial intelligence (AI) research for almost sixty years, but its role has always been controversial. In the article an overview of the role of logic in artificial intelligence has been presented. The article showed mainly two possible applications of logic in AI: as a knowledge representation formalism and method of reasoning, and as a tool in computer science. The paper analyzed each of these and also investigated both the problems as well as the perspectives for the successful application of logic.

  • The Role of the Ethical Underpinnings of International Humanitarian Law in the Age of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems

    Author: Kaja Kowalczewska
    Institution: Pedagogical University of Krakow
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 464-475
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019305
    PDF: ppsy/48-3/ppsy2019305.pdf

    This paper presents selected conclusions related to the theoretical underpinnings of international humanitarian law, with special focus on the understanding of considerations of humanity and the dictates of public conscience (the Martens clause) and their impact on the regulation of lethal autonomous weapons systems. Despite the fact that different positions can be found in the doctrine, it is argued herein that the general principles of international humanitarian law are not sufficient to properly regulate the disruptive military technologies (new means and methods of warfare) and a new international norm is needed. Consequently, the paper agglomerates extra-legal and cross-cutting arguments stemming from other normative regimes that point to prioritization of the value of human life and the role and quality of the human factor in decision-making procedures relating to the health and life of victims of modern armed conflicts, which should be incorporated in it.

  • The Current Legal Regulation of Cruptocurrancies and Blockchain in the World. Sistematisation of Definitions

    Author: Oleksandr Chernykh
    Institution: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5904-1734
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 41-55
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20210104
    PDF: ksm/29/ksm2904.pdf

    The author analyses the legislation of different countries, analytical studies of international experts in order to determine trends in the legal regulation of blockchain. Regulations of government banks, regulatory organizations regarding the operation of the virtual assets and growing demand for virtual currency leads to high risks in the area crypto actives. Uncertainty and complexity of legal support for the development of blockchain technologies and artificial intelligence in economic activity leads to limited practice of regulatory definition and government processes. However, state order is to sanction the stabile existing social relations from considering international legal institutions of legal regulation, such as the protection of personal data, identification and verification subjects of entrepreneurial activity, prevention of laundering money, prevention of evasion from payment of taxes. The author draws attention to the fact that it is necessary to concentrate analyses on resolving not only virtual currency, but the system blockchain in general, to provide legal definition of those phenomena which are not associated with just speculation or payments of cryptocurrency. In the article discusses current problems of the EU, Asia, Ukraine on implementation of international standards in the field of prevention of laundering of money, protection of per sonal data and the possibility of crypto actives and use the technology of artificial intelligence, which will develop business operations, including technology blockchain.

  • Competition for High Politics in Cyberspace: Technological Conflicts Between China and the USA

    Author: Karina Verónica Val Sánchez
    Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7036-3523
    Author: Nezir Akyesilmen
    Institution: Selcuk University-Konya (Turkey)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8184-5280
    Published online: 21 June 2021
    Final submission: 15 December 2020
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Source: Show
    Page no: 27
    Pages: 43-69
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202116
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202116.pdf

    This paper highlighted the use of cyberspace as a conflict zone by the US and China, focusing on competition in various technological spheres, including cyberespionage, military technology, and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The main purpose of this study was to depict how great powers manipulate the cyber domain for their high political objectives through US-China rivalry. The research has been carried out mainly via literature review, discourse analysis, and relevant statistics. Consistent with previous literature and global public perception, the outcome has shown that both states are using cyberspace as a new domain for completion in trade, technology, and military purposes. Cyberespionage, the militarization of cyberspace, and AI have been the main conflict areas between these two global competitors in the last decade.

  • Głos człowieka i głos android. Eksperyment porównawczy

    Author: Marek Zimnak
    Institution: Dolnośląska Szkoła Wyższa
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6684-6469
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 214-239
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202011
    PDF: cip/18/cip1811.pdf

    Artykuł prezentuje założenia, przebieg i wyniki eksperymentu, opartego na wskazaniu przez uczestników głosu człowieka bądź głosu androida na podstawie przedstawionych próbek. Uczestnicy eksperymentu – studenci kierunków związanych z nowymi mediami – osiągnęli wyniki znacznie przekraczające połowę trafnych wskazań. Decyzje podejmowali wyłącznie na podstawie niewerbalnych cech wypowiedzi. W tekście zostaje podkreślona waga zagadnienia w obliczu rozwoju sztucznej inteligencji – dla pełnego bezpieczeństwa przyszłej koegzystencji obu odmian inteligencji niezbędne będą odpowiednie regulacje.

  • Konstytucyjne wartości u progu ery sztucznej inteligencji

    Author: Mateusz Pszczyński
    Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3654-1795
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 511-523
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.40
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6340.pdf

    Constitutional values at the dawn of the AI era

    The article presents constitutional values exposed to violation by solutions using AI. Based on the dogmatic-legal method, the views of Polish constitutional law since the 1989 changes were analysed. In the study of the impact of AI on the accepted values, the literature on the subject, mainly from 2017–2020, was used. The aim of the study is to identify significant constitutional values exposed to threats from the development of AI. Of the many constitutional values, it is shown that the key ones are human dignity and the rule of law and democracy as the most vulnerable to interference from AI. Examples of AI interference with human values and those related to the idea of a democratic state under the rule of law are presented. It concludes that unregulated use of AI poses a risk of violating constitutional values.

  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

    Author: Aleksander Olech
    Institution: Baltic Defence College
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3793-5913
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-60
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20223203
    PDF: npw/32/npw3203.pdf

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - a Lethal Weapon of Tomorrow for Terrorists

    Terrorism has been used as a form of combat for centuries. Over the years, the tools used by terrorists have evolved. While attacks with cold weapons still take place, nowadays terrorists also use explosives, machine guns, guided missiles and increasingly often drones. The present growth of the arms market has led to terrorist groups being heavily militarized, as they can successfully acquire modern weapons and subsequently use them in their attacks. This state of affairs has directly affected the security of states and societies, and subsequently became a principal subject of discussion on international security forums. Contemporary global terrorist threats also harness artificial intelligence that supports weaponized robots, missiles, as well as clusters of killer drones. This narrative arose a few years ago, indicating that terrorists may have a vastly greater array of options at their disposal because they may cooperate with some states that would back them up. The chance for terrorist organisations to gain access to artificial intelligence technologies only increased due to the global competition surrounding it. Due to this potential spreading, terrorists will have a chance to operate weapons supported by AI. These events then merge into a deeply concerning scenario which conceivably may have to be confronted. The threat of terrorist organisations possessing and using swarms of drones does not seem to be very distant.

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