authoritarian regimes

  • Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Author: Zdzisław W. Puślecki
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 135-149
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017209
    PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017209.pdf

    In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  • Freedoms and Human Rights in the Venezuelan Constitution in the Context of the Functioning of an Authoritarian State

    Author: Wawrzyniec Kowalski
    Institution: Military University of Technology
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7426-9593
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 151-161
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.06.12
    PDF: ppk/64/ppk6412.pdf

    The purpose of the article is to draw attention to the functioning of constitutional guarantees of human rights and freedoms contained in the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The author addresses the issue of human rights protection, including the development of institutions guaranteeing their protection in the context of the authoritarian model of governance in Venezuela. The paper is a theoretical attempt to present the problem of the functioning of human rights institutions in Venezuela at the constitutional level after the seizure of power by President Nicolas Maduro. It also attempts to determine to what extent the Chavista camp suspended constitutional guarantees of protection of human rights and freedoms in Venezuela. At the same time, the article describes how the petrification of the system of power by Nicolas Maduro affects the state of human rights protection in the country.

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