biography

  • Maria Skłodowska–Curie – a sketch to the portrait

    Author: Edward Olszewski
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 287-313
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011016
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011016.pdf

    Biographers of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, characterizing her features of personality, underline her pragmatism, consequence in action and logical mind. Her studies in the fields of mathematics, physics and chemistry developed these features of personality and, at the same time, paved her way to achievements on the world’s scale.

  • Maria Skłodowska–Curie – Woman, Wife and Mother

    Author: Krystyna Leszczyńska
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 314-329
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011017
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011017.pdf

    On May 20, 1921 during the ceremony of presenting a gram of radium to Maria Skłodowska-Curie, the President of the United States, Warren Harding, called the Polish scientist “the most noble of human beings, the best wife and a loving mother who could combine all the woman’s duties with the immense effort of her fabulous work.” It is unquestionable that scientific research in the field of experimental physics was the main aim and sense of Maria Skłodowska-Curie’s life. But this field of science, which a two-time Noble laureate has chosen, was, at those times, “exclusively male.”

  • Testament Magdaleny z Tarłów Lubomirskiej, wojewodziny krakowskiej

    Author: Bożena Popiołek
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 423-433
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201328
    PDF: ksm/18/ksm201328.pdf

    The last will of Magdalena Lubomirska is a very interesting document of fe­male mentality. She was a polish noble women jointed with the king’s court of Augustus II Wettin. She presented the economic problem of her fortune and she created the schooling system for her children, and she protected their life as the orphans.

  • Biografia artystyczna i mit (na przykładzie Papuszy J. Kos-Krauze i K. Krauzego)

    Author: Ewelina Wejbert-Wąsiewicz
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 117-139
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2016.01.07
    PDF: kie/111/kie11107.pdf

    The Subject of the study are cinema biographies of artists. The main point of discussion is the “directed biography”, popular biography, existing in wide reception for example polish movie Papusza directed by Joanna Kos­Krauze and Krzysztof Krauze. In the paper used the method of analysis and comparison of various available sources and documents: scientific biography, interviews, press releases, reports and documentaries; particularly inspiring was the method of Panofsky. The aim of the article is not uncovering the truth biographical reality, but its interpretation in the form of ideas, visions of artists in the eyes of other artists (directors, screenwriters). There are important issues is the mythologizing and demythologization elements in a film about Papusza and also functions work: knowledge, education. Aesthetic values are not the subject of research in itself, but they can’t be overlooked because the analysis of image and analysis of content movie’s reminds analysis of discourse, because of the focus on intertextual relations.

  • As publicystyki polskiej przełomu XIX i XX w. Aleksander Świętochowski i jego związki z prasą

    Author: Marta Cichocka
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-33
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2018.01
    PDF: pbs/6/pbs601.pdf

    From the age of 23 until his death at the age of 89, thus for more than half a century, Aleksander Świętochowski was associated with the Polish press. He was an author of texts, editor and publisher, owner of three magazines: „Prawda” („The Truth”), „Kultura Polska” („Polish Culture”), and „Humanista Polski” („The Polish Humanist”). Despite numerous additional activities in the public sphere - literary, social and educational, political - biographers unanimously believe that, above all, he was a journalist and in this role he had no equal. The aim of the article is to show life of „ The Apostle of Truth” through the prism of his relations with the press. The main theme has been set in the broader context of the political realities of the time. Due to the wide time span, the professional career dynamics of the protagonist and the evolution of his image were taken into account. Świętochowski’s approach to work, as well as his view on the surrounding reality, has been analyzed and an attempt has been made to assess the motives behind his decisions related to his profession.

  • Koncepcje społeczno-gospodarcze księdza Antoniego Szymańskiego

    Author: Rafał Łętocha
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 71-88
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2018.04
    PDF: pbs/6/pbs604.pdf

    Among the Catholic thinkers and social activists of the interwar period priest Antoni Szymański is for sure an exceptional figure. He can certainly be called the leader of the Catholic-social camp in the Second Polish Republic. This is justified not only given his rich literary work in this field, but also because of the numerous functions he performed at that time. He was at the head of the Social Council of the Primate of Poland, the Union of Polish Catholic Intelligentsia, and the Catholic University of Lublin. Over the years he was the chief-editor of „Prąd”, undoubtedly one of the most important Catholic periodicals of that period. In his socio-economic views, he consistently promoted the personalist position, opposing both capitalism based on individualism, and all sorts of collectivist conceptions.

  • Kazimierz Dagnan: polski narodowy socjalista

    Author: Jarosław Tomasiewicz
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 89-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2018.05
    PDF: pbs/6/pbs605.pdf

    Kazimierz Dagnan (1891-1986) was an extraordinary, but practically forgotten today, figure. The activist of the independence conspiracy before the World War I, and the Piłsudski’s legionnaire had an almost archetypal biography for a generation of fighters for independence. In independent Poland, he found himself in the government administration, but he did not limit himself to an administrative career. He followed his own path, faithful to your ideals connecting the cause of Polish independence with the idea of the emancipation of the working class. He was active on the pro-Piłsudski wing of the National Workers’ Party (NWP), and after the coup d’etat in 1926 he became involved in the splinter pro-regime NWP-Leftgroup. He was an ideologist of the national workers’ movement, stubbornly trying to radicalize him. Making a synthesis of nationalism, democracy and reformist socialism, he created the original Polish national-socialist ideology. This ideology assumed the construction of a „People’s Poland of Labour” as a democratic state in which grassroots socialization of the means of production and exchange would gradually proceed. The priority for Dagnan still was the sovereignty of the Polish state and the primacy of the Polish (ethnic) nation in this state. The political expression of this ideology was the Party of National Socialists created in 1933, which, however, did not succeed and vegetated on the margins of political life. During World War II, Dagnan returned to his native Nowy Sącz. In People’s Poland, he began a second life there - as an artist and social activist valued in the local community.

  • „Rzeczpospolita menadżerów” czy „prymitywny tayloryzm”? Koncepcje ekonomiczne Aleksandra Bocheńskiego w latach osiemdziesiątych

    Author: Ariel Orzełek
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 157-183
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2018.08
    PDF: pbs/6/pbs608.pdf

    An important element of Aleksander Bocheński’s political reflection was the analysis of economic phenomena. It was also always intertwined with the geopolitical reflection retained in the mainstream of political realism, which was the key to his concept. Bocheński affirmed the People’s Poland as a form of Polish statehood not only in the international but also in the economic aspect. He postwar than pre-war economic achievements, seeing the Second Republic primarily through the prism of the economic crisis and the weakness of industry. Over time, he became an honest supporter of the command and distribution system, raising the importance of labor discipline and high production rates. The emergence of Solidarity, martial law and the policy of Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski’s team considered not only in terms of the threat of Soviet intervention and internal destabilization, but also the economic crisis. He wanted a deep reform of the economic system, which nevertheless did not violate the general principle of economic control by the state. In place of the „dictatorship of bureaucrats,” he proposed the „dictatorship of managers”, combined with an appropriate system of incentive motivators. This led to his criticism of the idea of introducing competition mechanisms into the PRL economy. Treating the economic system as a great conglomerate, which every employee should feel obliged to work efficiently and reliably in the name of higher goals, he seemed to create a Polish variant of Taylorism. On the other hand, despite the large anachronism of his reflection, he appreciated the importance of computerization and economic relief for private entrepreneurs. In the turn of 1989, he referred with reserve to the actions of Deputy Prime Minister Balcerowicz, raising the social costs of shock therapy and its negative effects on Polish industry. At the end of his life, he was much better at assessing the economic policies of communists than the governments of the Third Polish Republic. He did not believe in the „invisible hand of the market”, but in the decisive role of adequately managed capital, that is, an efficient state apparatus. The pre-war and post-war advocate of etatism also remained faithful to the belief that the international position of the state determined to a decisive extent its economic potential.

  • Edward Licht (1912–1965) – szkic do portretu pediatry

    Author: Magdalena Żukowska
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 185-195
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2018.09
    PDF: pbs/6/pbs609.pdf

    The article is a biographical outline of Edward Licht - an outstanding pediatrician who created medicine in Szczecin from the very beginning after the Second World War. He was involved in the scientific and didactic work of the Medical Academy (later the Pomeranian Medical Academy, currently the Pomeranian Medical University). Among the many prominent figures of Polish post-war medicine there are many people who, despite their significant contribution to the development of this field of science, have remained forgotten by the history of medicine. Among them is Edward Licht, whose research focused on the issue of children’s rheumatic diseases and tuberculosis. An important background of this article are his Jewish origins, his special fate during the war and the fate of his family.

  • Prominentny przodek pogromcy Spartakusa – Publius Licinius Crassus Dives, konsul w 205 r. przed Chr.

    Author: Maciej Maciejowski
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 5-37
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2019.01
    PDF: pbs/7/pbs701.pdf

    The author attempts to answer to question, to what extent eulogy written down by Livy and concerning title figure of Publius Licinius Crassus (consul in 205 B.C.), corresponded with the facts (Liv. XXX 1, 4-6). Article presented stages of political and military career of the above-mentioned member of nobilitas and his competences. This activity can be followed by analysis his activity during holding consecutive offices (pontifex maximus, censor, magister equitum, praetor peregrinus, consul, proconsul). Where therefore we should seek origins of so high assesment given him by Livy? Analysing his activity the course Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.) author arrived at the conclusion, that it were not relatively modest war deedes, particularly in comparison with Roman outstanding leaders in this range, which decided about standing of Crassus. In his career, he placed himself in the role of the client of powerful gens Cornelia. He gained support from Cornelii during elections for pontifex maximus. In return for patronage and help in promotion on consecutive magistracies, he reciprocated undobtedly using his extensive juridicial knowledge. As a pontifex maximus he was also important link in the system of political control over sphere of the religion. Thus, origins of prestige of Crassus we should perceive above all in his mastery of the law. He was known not only as a expert in pontifical law, but also in advising Roman people and senate. It is emphasized not only by Livy, but also by Cicero, whose testimony, although late, it seems valuable, because it revels to us good memory of Crassus, which was preserved in Roman tradition. By advising in lawsuits, he was able to build own clientele, anywaythe network of obligations. This activity was also probably origin of his substantial profits (hence cognomen Dives). Example of the Crassus shows to us, that in Republican Rome, even in tumultuous times, it was there possibility to gain high political standing beyond sphere stricte military.

  • Generał broni lucjan żeligowski (1865-1947) przyczynek do biografii

    Author: Andrzej Wojtaszak
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 67-93
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2019.03
    PDF: pbs/7/pbs703.pdf

    Generał Lucjan Żeligowski pochodził z polskiej rodziny szlacheckiej, herbu „Bończa”. Jego przodkowie walczyli ze Szwedami w XVI wieku, a jego ojciec brał udział w powstaniu styczniowym w 1863 roku. Jedna z najbardziej kontrowersyjnych postaci w korpusie generałów II RP. Walczył w wojnie rosyjsko-japońskiej (1904-1905). Podczas Wielkiej Wojny, po zgodzie władz rosyjskich na tworzenie polskich formacji wojskowych, był współorganizatorem Brygady Strzelców Polskich, walczył w szeregach Polskiej Dywizji Strzelców i w Pierwszym Korpusie Polskim W ostatnim okresie wojny współorganizował 4. Dywizję Strzelców Polskich, z którą dotarł do Polski przez Odessę i Besarabię. Walczył z wojskami Zachodnioukraińskiej Republiki Ludowej i w wojnie polsko-radzieckiej - na Froncie Północnym (10 DP) oraz w walkach pod Radzyminem (podczas bitwy warszawskiej). Po wojnie na czele 1. Dywizji Piechoty Litewsko-Białoruskiej zajął Wilno i doprowadził do powstania Republiki Litwy Środkowej. „Bunt Żeligowskiego” zaowocował przyłączeniem tego obszaru do Polski. W Wojsku Polskim był dowódcą Inspektoratu Wojskowego nr 2 w Warszawie i Ministrem Spraw Wojskowych. Po zamachu stanu Piłsudskiego (zamachu majowym) stanął na czele Komisji Likwidacyjnej powołanej w celu wyjaśnienia okoliczności i przebiegu wydarzeń majowych w 1926 r. Był także inspektorem armii w Generalnym Inspektoracie Zbrojnym Siły. 31 sierpnia 1927 r. przeszedł na emeryturę. W 1928 r. został przewodniczącym Kapituły Orderu Odrodzenia Polski i członkiem Trybunału Stanu. W 1935 r. został wybrany posłem na Sejmu IV kadencji z listy Bezpartyjnego Bloku Współpracy z Rządem - przewodniczył Komisji Wojskowej Parlamentu, a następnie był posłem na Sejm V kadencji z listy bezpartyjnej. Podczas II wojny światowej był członkiem Rady Narodowej Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, przewodniczącym Komitetu Wojskowego i kanclerzem Orderu Virtuti Militari. Zwolennik słowiano filstwa. W okresie powojennym opowiadał się za współpracą z ZSRR. Zmarł w Londynie w 1947 r. Spoczywa na Cmentarzu Wojskowym na Powązkach w Warszawie.

  • Od Mikołaja Kozakiewicza do Macieja Płażyńskiego. Szkice do portretu Marszałków Sejmu w latach 1989–2011

    Author: Marek Białokur
    Institution: Instytut Historii, Uniwersytet Opolski
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 163-207
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/acno2020106
    PDF: acno/9/acno202006.pdf

    From Mikołaj Kozakiewicz to Maciej Płażyński. Sketches for the portrait of the Marshals of the Sejm in 1989–2011

    The aim of the article is to present the biographies of the first five marshals of Polish parliaments in 1989–2011. The Marshals of the Sejm presented in short biographical sketches are figures who played an important role in Polish politics. Among them were politicians from various political groups. Two activists associated with the Polish people’s movement (Mikołaj Kozakiewicz and Józef Zych), one socialist from the former post-communist camp (Józef Oleksy) and two with a beautiful card in the anti-communist opposition and strongly associated with the Catholic Church (Wiesław Chrzanowksi and Maciej Płażyński). The Marshal of the Sejm is the speaker of the Sejm, the lower house of the Polish parliament. The office traces its origins to the 15th century. In modern Poland, the full title is Marshal of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland. Today the Marshal of the Sejm is the chairman of the Presidium of the Sejm and the Convention of Seniors. The Marshal oversees the work of the Sejm, supervises procedural sessions of the Sejm, and convenes and chairs the proceedings of the Convention of Seniors and the Presidium of the Sejm. Since 1989 substitutes for the President of Poland in the event of that office’s vacancy.

  • Challe nges of a Scholarly Biography of Primate Stefan Wyszyński

    Author: Rafał Łatka
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2650-4031
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 55-73
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/pbs.2020.03
    PDF: pbs/8/pbs803.pdf

    This study outlines the challenges faced by authors who might undertake in the future the task of writing a full scholarly biography of Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. The author of this paper analyzes the state of research to date and evaluates the existing literature on the subject. The following two sections deal with challenges regarding source material and interpretive challenges in describing diverse areas of the life and scope of the Primate of the Millennium’s activities. The paper focuses on the period of Wyszyński’s service as a primate, as it seems that in-depth research on the earlier stages of Stefan Wyszyński’s life could be an arduous task to conduct.

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