Chiny

  • O źródłach zróżnicowania kulturowo-cywilizacyjnego Azji Południowo-Wschodniej

    Author: Kornel Bielawski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Gdański
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 111-123
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201706
    PDF: cip/15/cip1506.pdf

    Azja Południowo-Wschodnia stanowi region ekstremalnie różnorodny kulturowo. Współczesna rzeczywistość cywilizacyjno-kulturowa stanowi efekt licznych interakcji międzygrupowych, różnorodnych grup etnicznych i wyznawców odmiennych religii, do których dochodziło na przestrzeni dziejów. Charakter regionu determinowany jest także przez ukształtowanie terenu oraz bliskie sąsiedztwo dwóch ważnych cywilizacji: Indii oraz Chin. W artykule omówione zostaną źródła zróżnicowania cywilizacyjno-kulturowego Azji Południowo-Wschodniej.

  • Statehood Without the State: The Politico-Legal Visions of the Future State of Tibet

    Author: Marcin Lisiecki
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-46
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.03
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5903.pdf

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the situation of modern Tibet, which political and legal structures are divided into the Central Tibetan Administration in India and the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. What connects them is a developing national identity of the Tibetans and the actions taken by the Central Tibetan Administration to create a new and independent state. Of great importance for the specificity of politics and the shaping of Tibetan national identity are also activities of the 14th Dalai Lama, who internationally promotes Tibetan culture and informs about the situation of Tibetans living in the Tibet Autonomous Region in China.
    Dalai Lama is also the author of the draft constitution of the future state of Tibet, which content is a basis of the analysis in this article. Due to the comprehensive presentation and explanation of the specifics of this project, we will analyze not only particular articles, but also the introduction that we can consider as preamble. Thanks to this, it will be possible to show the relationship between political, legal and religious issues that make up the visions of the new state of Tibet.
    This article is divided into two related parts. The first one is connected with national identity and independence of Tibet. The second part is focused on democratization of Tibet and relation between religion and politics.

  • Sports Exchange as a Tool of Shaping State’s Image: The Case of China

    Author: Michał Marcin Kobierecki
    Institution: University of Łódź
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 109-120
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.59.08
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5908.pdf

    China is a country that employs a number of tools in order to shape its positive international perception. Sport plays an important role in this area. The aim of the research is to investigate the issue of sports exchanges and their role in shaping international image of China. The analysis is an empirical case study and is aimed at answering a research question concerning how sports exchanges may be used in order to shape a desired international image of a country. According to the main hypothesis to be tested in the article, through sports exchanges China managed to make a swift from the old, unidirectional sports diplomacy, to a more dialogue-oriented, reciprocal form.

  • Regress of the West and the Emerging of New World Order: The Case of NATO

    Author: Katarzyna Gruszko
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6700-5696
    Author: Tomasz Gajewski
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1556-1591
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 182-199
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2018.60.11
    PDF: apsp/60/apsp6011.pdf

    Uncertainty is the notion that can be a one-word description of the state of global affairs. Tensions in the world order architecture are symptoms of its ongoing transformation. The purpose of the article is to explore the reasons, manifestations and direction of this change. The prime assumption of the analysis is the regress of the West. NATO as a strategic bridge between two centers of the West – Europe and the United States – is subjected to scientific investigation to examine its possible role in reestablishment of the relative power of the West and regaining its defining capabilities in the world order in statu nascendi. The analysis is supplemented by two scenarios of possible trajectories of world order transformation.

  • Pomiędzy izolacjonizmem i globalizacją z chińską charakterystyką: stosunki USA–ChRL w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa

    Author: Bartosz Kowalski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 23-38
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.61.02
    PDF: apsp/61/apsp6102.pdf

    Stosunki amerykańsko-chińskie w pierwszym roku prezydentury Donalda Trumpa były okresem gwałtownego przewartościowania polityki Waszyngtonu wobec Pekinu. Protekcjonistyczne hasło „America First” kontrastowało wyraźnie z próbą narzucania przez Chińską Republikę Ludową globalnej narracji otwartości gospodarczej, a wycofywanie się Stanów Zjednoczonych z porozumień wielostronnych zaczęły dyskontować władze Chin, wysuwając własne projekty multilateralne. W porównaniu z prezydenturą Baracka Obamy, postulującego „zwrot ku Azji” (pivot to Asia), pierwszych dwanaście miesięcy rządów jego następcy w Białym Domu charakteryzowała wyraźna zmiana priorytetów w polityce wobec Chin w oparciu o konfrontacyjną retorykę i rosnącą asertywność w kwestiach gospodarczych.

  • O metodologicznych trudnościach badania i opisywania Chin

    Author: Krzysztof Gawlikowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 49-75
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201903
    PDF: ap/22/ap2203.pdf

    Some methodological difficulties in studying and analysing China

    The study presents various factors which obstacles adequate description and analysis of Chinese realities in Western scholarly literature. The first factor presented in the article is the psychological mechanism of a “mirror”. As Lynn T. White suggested, since the 17th century, that Westerners look at China not through a ‘window’ but through a ‘mirror’, in which their own fears or most treasured ideals are refl ected, not China itself. Hence their descriptions of China refl ect first of all their state of mind. Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen add to this metaphor another one, that of a procrustean bed. According to these authors, contemporary Western scholars procede like ancient Procrustes who made his captives fit his bed cutting their too long limbs or stretching these too short, in order to adapt Chinese realities to the Western schemes. Sebastian Heilmann and Matthias Stepan in order to explain Western mistaken views of China and expectations presented six wrong assumptions concerning developments in China. Their list is controversial, but it is true that on the Western side there are numerous wrong assumptions concerning China and other Asian states. Thus the Chinese realities are described in a wrong way, and the predictions of future developments are also false.
    The Author put an emphasis on scientific categories and terms elaborated in Europe and the States and considered “universal”, which, however, are not adequate to the Chinese realities. Hence their use results in falsification of descriptions and makes previsions based on them – groundless. He distinguishes two essential kinds of categories and terms borrowed from the West but inadequate to the Chinese realities. The first constitutes the terms which significance does not fit to the Chinese realities, as “language”, “religion”, historical epochs such as “antiquity”, “,Middle Ages”, etc. The second constitutes the terms which meanings involve cultural values. Many of them are difficult to translate into Chinese and they acquire different meanings in the context of Confucian heritage. The Author analyses from this perspective: “human rights”, “democracy” and “freedom”.
    Western scholars are also often mislead by Chinese sources. The study indicates another factor, which facilitates great misunderstandings. According to the cultural norm of the Confucian civilisation there is a “proper façade” presented in public, behind which there are hidden “internal realities”. Of course, such differences could be detected in each culture, but in highly ritualistic Confucian civilisation this distinction is essential, and both parts constitute “complex realities”, whereas Westerners presume that the façade constitutes a whole and complete reality. The Author presents as an example centralised, unitary Leninist state in Chin that is – in his opinion merely a false “public image”, whereas in reality there operate more or less innumerable quite autonomous units, which in fact are not subordinate. Under such circumstances all decisions must be consulted and negotiated among them, like in a federal system, although it does not operate formally. The Westerners also misleads themselves considering their peculiar civilisation as “universal”, whereas there are various civilisations, which will not amalgamate during the modernisation processes. Hence various societies function and change in their own ways, different from the western schemes and expectations.
    The study indicates that the West still predominates and presents its civilisation as universal. However, its predomination faces growing resistance and numerous scholars recognise the existence of numerous civilisations, which will also develop in the future. The author enumerates the most significant concepts such as “dialogue among civilisations and cultures” adopted by the United Nations in 1989, Huntington’s warning against imposing western norms on other civilisations, which may result in their ‘clashes’, the concept of the Axial Age, of Multiple Modernities, and so on. The road to an equal status of all civilisations is long and tortuous. The elaboration of universal scientific categories and principles is even more difficult, and it is, perhaps, a task for future generations of Asian scholars.

     

     

  • Globalnie czy lokalnie? Kulturowe uwarunkowania edukacji w Chinach

    Author: Anna Mańkowska
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1026-9487
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 85-97
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2020.01.04
    PDF: em/12/em1204.pdf

    Celem podjętych rozważań jest przedstawienie kulturowych uwarunkowań edukacji w Chinach w dobie globalizacji. Artykuł odpowiada na pytanie, czy w czasach globalnych przemian i swobodnego przepływu treści, znaczeń i rozwiązań oświatowych, edukacja w Chinach pozostaje wierna tradycji i wartościom lokalnym. Przedmiotem badań były system edukacyjny i rzeczywistość kulturowo-społeczna w okresie przemian. W treści artykułu wykorzystano badania zastane chińskich i zagranicznych autorów. Jako metodę badawczą wybrano analizę źródeł wtórnych, która pokazała, że mimo gwałtownych, globalnych zmian, chińska edukacja w swoich metodach i sposobach nauczania pozostaje wierna ideałom i założeniom chińskiej tożsamości, a dokonuje tego za pośrednictwem procesu kontekstualizacji.

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