Chiny starożytne

  • Idiomy chińskie chengyu z dzieła Strategie walczących państw (Zhanguo ce). Od opowiastek alegorycznych (yuyan) do współczesnych kontekstów

    Author: Marcin Jacoby
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-69
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201702
    PDF: ap/20/ap2002.pdf

    Chinese chengyu idioms from Stratagems of the Warring States (Zhanguo ce). From allegoric narrations (yuyan) to modern use.

    The paper provides an analysis of eight well-known chengyu (成语) idioms used in modern Chinese, which originate from the Warring States Period (475–221 BC) compilation of historical anecdotes Zhanguo ce (战国策). The chosen chengyus all derive from ‘allegoric narrations’ (yuyan, 寓言), a particular mode of discourse widely used in pre-Qin (pre 221 BC) political and philosophical writings. The author identifi es yuyan as a tool of persuasion, rather than a separate literary genre, and draws certain parallels between Chinese yuyan, European fables and New Testament parables. The paper explores original historical context, and actual effect of each of the Chinese yuyan used by diplomats and strategists, as recorded in the Zhanguo ce. The source text and the modern chengyus are juxtaposed to show continuity and change in the meaning and connotation of idiomatic expressions found in Modern Chinese which can be traced to pre-Qin period.

     

  • Starożytna geneza nazwy „Państwo Środka”: na tropach formowania tożsamości chińskiej

    Author: Krzysztof Gawlikowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 186-220
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ap201809
    PDF: ap/21/ap2109.pdf

    The ancient roots of the term the “Middle State’: Remarks on the evolution of the Chinese identity

    The author outlines first the contemporary essential terms related to the “Chineseness”; 1) the ‘Middle’ or ‘Central State’ (Zhongguo); with its derivates – a ‘Chinese’ (Zhongguoren) and the ‘Chinese nation’ (zhongguo minzu); 2) ‘the Middle Country of Splendid Culture’ (Zhonghua), and its derivates – ‘the Republic of China’ (Zhonghua Min’guo) and the ‘People’s Republic of China’ (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo), the ‘All-Chinese nation’ (zhonghua minzu); ‘rejuvenation of China’ (Zhonghua fuxing); 3) ‘Chinese’ as ethnicity or cultural characteristics (Han). The southern term (tang) and its use is indicated. Their content is briefly presented: as political, cultural and ethnic. Then the author analyses the evolution of the term ‘Middle/Central State’ starting with the concept of the ‘Central Shang [capital]’ (Zhong Shang) and the ‘capital region’. The ‘five parts of the world’ (wu fang) appears essential in its genesis. Various ancient mystical meanings and semi-religious notions are considered. The author indicates when and in what sense the term had been used.
    The author also analyses various ancient notions of ‘the Middle State’; its belt structure, its division into ‘9 provinces’, the concept of the ‘continent’ (in between the Four Seas), a 1/9 part of one continent among 9, the ‘holy land’; the Buddhist concept that the true Middle State is in India, etc. The ancient sources are extensively quoted and analyzed.
    Hence it becomes obvious that this contemporary political term has various nuances and potential meanings, since traditional culture is still vivid.

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