• The Growing Role of Cities and Their Networks in the International Relations and International Security

    Author: Agnieszka Szpak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 54–77
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/52/apsp5203.pdf

    The author analyses the manifestations of cities’ growing role for ensuring the national/international as well as environmental and human security. Cities of today increasingly participate in international relations – they internalize, implement and enforce international law, sometimes independently of their States’ international legal obligations, for example when they pledge to implement human rights conventions or environmental law obligations that their own States did not pledge to fulfill. In this way they contribute to international peace and security. On the basis of those manifestations, the author attempts to explain the possible position of cities on the international plane and according to international law – whether they should be accorded greater autonomy or international legal personality. The author also indicates that the role of cities in the area of different aspects of security is growing.

  • Consequences of the Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547) for the modification of the tax system in the 16th century Kingdom of Bohemia

    Author: Petr Vorel
    Institution: Ústav historických věd Fakulty filozofické Univerzity Pardubice
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 46-63
    DOI Address:
    PDF: hso/18/hso1803.pdf

    The article deals with the consequences of a political agreement between King Ferdinand I and a part of the Bohemian opposition nobility, concluded in 1547 in order to restore stability following the Schmalkaldic War (1546–1547). The change in the tax system put Bohemian royal cities and owners of large estates at a considerable disadvantage while profits from manor farming and financial services remained virtually untaxed. This tax structure, applied for several decades, resulted in a rapid increase of debts and the ultimate collapse of the entire tax system in 1615. The resulting financial crisis was resolved by the Bohemian Landtag in 1615 by declaring bankruptcy of the treasury and taking over tax collection.

  • Cooperation between European Cities and Amazonian Indigenous Peoples in the Fight Against Climate Change

    Author: Agnieszka Szpak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 449-463
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/48-3/ppsy2019304.pdf

    This paper concentrates on a particular example of cooperation between European cities and indigenous peoples of the Amazon river basin, namely that of Climate Alliance. The New Urban Agenda adopted at the UN Habitat III conference in October 2016 emphasizes that cities and other human settlements should meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities for current and future sustainable and economic inclusive development. Cities should also take measures to address climate change and protect and manage their ecosystems, water resources, the environment and biodiversity. Indigenous peoples, just like cities play a crucial role in the fight against climate change. 80 % of the territories with high biodiversity level are indigenous lands. Their indigenous ecological knowledge may serve as a valuable tool in initiatives aimed at fighting climate change. The aim of the paper is to show whether there are any benefits of such cooperation and what is its significance in the fight against climate change. The main research question is: what are the forms of cooperation between European cities and Amazonian indigenous peoples in the framework of Climate Alliance? In which way can European cities support indigenous peoples in their fight for their rights and consequently for the nature’s preservation? The hypothesis is that European cities may learn from indigenous peoples of the Amazon how to combat climate change.

  • My Thoughts on Future Political Needs and Difficulties

    Author: Konrad Gizbert-Studnicki
    Institution: University in Ottawa
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 35-53
    DOI Address:
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201902.pdf

    When I was a young father, my children believed that my sayings were a true wisdom worthy repetition; today things have changed - it was my turn is to repeat wisdom of my children, believing that they usually are right. A few months ago, my son, Daviken, said that those who were writing frequently cannot easily survive without writing. Daviken was right. I loved to write, especially when something I wrote and which was contrary to what people believe was correct. I believe I inherited the dislike to generally accepted truth from my father, who was described by a Polish weekly that he was “the man who always goes against the general flow”. My father thought that this was an excellent statement of his character. He loved saying: “I am indeed a man who will think and act against prevailing flow, because only shit floats always with main current, and people who try to float in the main flow are those who repeat, without understanding, everything what they had heard”.

  • The Evolution of the European Union Urban Agenda: A Hard Path Towards a City-Oriented Policy?

    Author: Liliia Hrytsai
    Institution: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-35
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/67/apsp6702.pdf

    During the last decades, alongside the growing role of cities, the process of urbanization has been receiving more and more attention from the European policy-makers. This study analyzes the evolution of the EU urban agenda establishment since 1970s till the present times. In the first part, the paper presents five stages, most important milestones and core programs regarding the urbanization process in Europe. In the second section, the author pays a special attention to the Urban Agenda for the EU (the Pact of Amsterdam) as one of the key documents promoting the sound cooperation among the European urban policy stakeholders. In the final part, the paper provides the evaluation of the EU urban agenda’s genesis by indicating the main features of this process.

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