class struggle

  • Thoughts on the Theoretical Problems in the Book of Xi Jinping , Zarządzanie Chinami I [The Governance of China I], Wydawnictwo (Publishing House) Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2019, pp. 572

    Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
    Institution: University of Wrocław (retired)
    Author: (Jia) Wei Xiao
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 189-224
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201914
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201914.pdf

    The article includes five parts:
    1. Introduction – information about the book promotion event held in Warsaw on December 19, 2019 on the Polish edition of Xi Jinping’s Governance of China vol. I. The book launch was great not only because of the editing and the contents of the book, but also because it was a political, economic, cultural and international event, since the author is the number one politician not only in China but also in the contemporary world. The introduction includes information about the book content and demonstrates its importance for the theoretical generalizations and recognition of the main problems of contemporary China.
    2. According to the authors of the paper, problems mentioned in the book are especially important. The original Chinese way of building socialism and the early stages of Chinese revolution were national, anti-feudal, anti-capitalist, democratic and socialist. Mao Zedong established class-based Maoism as a Marxism-Leninism in the Chinese version, while Deng Xiaoping and his successors established and developed the socialist market economy, which is the continuation of Maoism in the new era and they created the Chinese path to the anti-capitalist revolution and the building of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The perspective of the development of China till 2021 and 2049 (as a modern and developed socialism) and its influence on the national rejuvenation is not only Chinese but also an international issue.
    3. Third part of the paper is devoted to the problems of building socialism in China, the analysis of the theory of Xi Jinping, the leading role of the CPC, the economic role of the owner and foreign capital in economy and policy, and the socio-economic contradictions in the contemporary PRC.
    4. Forth part concerns Confucianism and Marxism as theoretical and practical problems in China; the original Chinese culture and civilization; the continuation and discontinuation of the historical development in contemporary epoch; the original development; the policy of opening- -up; the necessity of considering human contents of Confucianism in building and developing of socialism in China.
    5. Fifth part of the paper is on the future status of the Communist Party of China’s Economy. Since the emergence of state-owned economy, it has played a huge role in the economic development of all countries. However, under the way of neoliberalism, state-owned economy has gradually been associated with backwardness and inefficiency. On the forum of state-owned economy enterprise reform in China, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave out important instructions. State-owned enterprises are an important force for strengthening the comprehensive power of the country and safeguarding the common interests of the people. State-owned enterprises must be made stronger, better and bigger. Academia has had a huge disagreement on this, and some scholars believe that this is an act of favoritism toward state-owned enterprises. This paper analyzes China’s state-owned economy from the perspective of total factor productivity (TFP), Marx’s historical materialism, national productivity, and social development, clarifying that state-owned economic reform is diff erent from the system of “profit based demands” rooted in the private economic market, but a system based on national productivity and the “needs” of the people. Making state-owned enterprises “stronger, better, and bigger” is in line with the historical development of socialism and material productivity, resolving doubts on the direction of state-owned economic reform.

  • Wpływ rewolucji październikowej na przemiany rewolucyjne na ziemiach polskich w latach 1917–1920

    Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
    E-mail: z.wiktor@gazeta.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 93-107
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2019106
    PDF: so/15/so1506.pdf

    The influence of the October Revolution on the revolutionary changes in Poland at 1917–1920

    The main thesis of article is the influence of the Oktober Revolution on the revolutionary changes in Poland at 1917–1920. It’s described causes and results of war world 1 and the fall of 2.I nternationale. In next time were organizing the revolutionary parties of Socialdemocracy and established communist parties, which 1919 united and established in the 3th Internationale – Communist The great ideological-political role in this process played revolutionary part od Russian Socialdemocracy – bolsheviki with W.I.Lenin as leader.
    The polish state was fall at the end 18th century and on the war world one since 1915 the territory was occupied by Germany and Austria. There at 19th century developed capitalizm and were estblishing worker parties especialy Great Proletariat, Polish Socialist Party (PPS), Socialdemocracy of Polish Kingsdom and Litauen (SDKPi), in next time from PPS was established PPS-Left. Workers were also under ideological influence of Polish katholic church, of national and solidarity movements. At 1917–1920 were many strikes and demonstrations, the class struggle developed in cities and in the country. There were also the struggle for the independent polish state in form of 2 main class forces: 1. bourgeoisie and landlords and 2. socialist proletariat. The workers (also partialy peasants) were organizing in the councils of worker delegates (like in Russia), there were about 100 councils in main industrial centres of Poland, but they were to weak in victorious struggle against capitalist forces at 1918–1920, especialy when the Poland-Soviet Russia war breake out. In Juli 1920 in Białystok was established The Contemporary Revolutionary Committee of Poland as a Revolutionary Government of Polish Soviet Republic, but it was collapsed together with Polish revolutionists and Soviet Red Army in battle by Warsaw August 1920. In result Polish revolution defeated and won the Polish bourgeoisie and landlords with the support of international capital. There is established the liberal-democratic state, which persisted to 1926, to coup d’ etat of Marshall J. Piłsudski.

  • Żołnierze wyklęci czy przeklęci

    Author: Zbigniew Wiktor
    E-mail: z.wiktor@gazeta.pl
    Institution: Emerytowany profesor Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 81-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020106
    PDF: so/17/so1706.pdf

    The Cursed or Damned Soldiers

    This article presents the place, as well as political and military role of the Polish reactionary guerilla in 1944-1948, identified mainly with the National Army Forces (NSZ), named colloquially as „cursed soldiers”. The great part of the Polish people uses, however, the cathegory of „damned soldiers”, which casts the political class and ascribes negative evaluation to this unit. The civil war and the reactionary querilla in the 1940s years are now presented by the reactionary right forces such as the party „Law and Justice” (PiS) as the „inflexible soldiers”, which did not surrender after the War World II and they battled against the People’s Republic of Poland. Under the German occupation they struggled against Polish leftand Soviet parisants and were also collaborating with the Wehrmacht and Gestapo (the Saint Cross Brigade of the NSZ). After WW II they murdered about 20.000 activists and functionaries of leftist political parties, of the state and local governments. Currently, they are presented as new heroes, which is a great historical lie, which established the new ideologic-political myth of the reactionary right forces in Poland as a fundament of the IV Polish Republic. In 1944-1945, Poland decided to chang the military and political situation in the result of liberation from German occupation by the Red Army and the Polish Army. In July, there was established the Polish Committee of the National Liberation, which introduced the people’s democracy, the agrar reform and the social progress. In December 1944, there was founded the Provisionally Government and in June 1945 the Provisionally Government of the National Unity, which were internationally acknowledged by all great powers and states of world. Since then, the Warsaw government had not only revolutionary and political mandate, but also international support to consquently eliminate the military underground („cursed”), which later changed in the terrorist-plunder gangs. At that time, they lost former glory and political authority, especially after the referndum in 1946, the parliamentary election in 1947, and after the amnesty of 1947, which strengthened the current leftin Poland. The National Armed Forces (NSZ) which operated in 1944-1948 are remembered by Poles not as the „cursed soldiers”, but as the „damned soldiers”, who used terror against the civilian people and introduced in Poland the political destabilization and wanted to provoke the III World War. They were armed conterrevolutionists, who buttled against the people’s, democracy and the political power of the working class. They were against new born Polish People’s Republic.

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