collective memory

  • A Case of Successful Transitional Justice: Fritz Bauer and his Late Recognition in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Author: Jakub Gortat
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 71-84
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2017205
    PDF: ppsy/46-2/ppsy2017205.pdf

    Germany is an example of a country which has been implementing transitional justice for decades and is still active in this field. What is more, contemporary Germans have recently come to terms with their not-so-distant past and their negligence in this area by showing the falsehood, backwardness, and injustice as negative foundations of the young Federal Republic. This article evokes the person of Fritz Bauer, the prosecutor in the state of Hessen. His struggle for human dignity and the memory of his achievements after his death exemplify an accomplished case of transitional justice and the memory of it. During his lifetime he contributed to bringing to trial numerous Nazi criminals, even at the cost of habitual threats and disregard. Forgotten for a few decades, Bauer and his legacy have been recently rediscovered and studied. Eventually, Bauer became a movie character and was finally brought back to the collective memory of Germans. The belated, but a well-deserved wave of popularity of Fritz Bauer in the German culture memory proves that reflections on the transitional justice are still topical and important.

  • Remembrance, Identity Politics and Political Transitions: a Comparative Study

    Author: Patryk Wawrzyński
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland) & WSB University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)
    Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-21
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016001
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016001.pdf

    The paper presents findings of the comparative study on relationships between remembrance story-telling and the transitional reconstruction of political identities. It identifies in which areas and fields of impact governments tend to use interpretations of the past to promote new leadership visions of society. Moreover, it verifies theoretical hypotheses related to the politicised remembrance and its role as a political asset during transformations, as well as it considers the theoretical framework of democracy-building (and a common prediction of its universal character). As a result, the study offers a detailed picture of the way remembrance narratives are transformed into explanations, justifications or legitimisation of new, post-authoritarian identities based on qualitative-to-quantitative analysis of the intensity of story-telling and its links with transitional identity politics. In the conclusion, the Authors present their consideration of research findings, and they discuss it with reference to the nature of transitional government’s remembrance policy as a sphere of social influence. 

  • Post–Yugoslav Collective Memory: Between National and Transnational Myths

    Author: Magdalena Rekść
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 73-84
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016006
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016006.pdf

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the image of Yugoslavia in the collective memories of the post–Yugoslav societies. The author of this text, basing on an assumption that every society has a great number of collective memories, highlights the fact that among the Balkan nations one can find both supporters and opponents not only of the SFRY but also of the idea of the cooperation among the Southern Slavs. Both positive and negative opinions of Yugoslavia in the collective memories are based not on the sober assessment of the historical facts but on collective emotions and historical and political myths. The anti–Yugoslav discourse in primarily based on the national mythology. The discourse of the supporters of the Yugoslav tradition one the other hand, goes back in a large extend to the transnational myths. By discussing these two types of ideas about Yugoslavia, the author of this text tries to show their impact on the current political decisions.

  • Wyzwania okresu transformacji ustrojowej w Argentynie – niedokończony proces rozliczania się z tzw. brudną wojną

    Author: Paulina Zamęcka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 349-370
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201618
    PDF: siip/15/siip1518.pdf

    The chall enges of political transformation in Argentina – the unfinished process of settlement of a dirty war

    A political transformation that has started in Argentina in 1983 put an end on the reign of military junta, but at the same time it was related with a number of challenges for both first democratic governments and the argentine society as a whole. One of the most problematic issues resulting from the confrontation with the crimes from 1976 – 1983 was so called transitional justice and the problem of identity and collective memory of societies coming out of the period of trauma, which are characterized by a high polarization due to different, even contradictory at times interpretations and ideas about the past. The article attempts to analyze the difficult process of settlement of the dirty war period, including the characteristics of the preceding events, the policy of the first democratic governments and the original strategies developed by the argentine movement for human rights, which on the one hand aimed to combat with the impunity of the perpetrators, and on the other hand to counteract the social amnesia and to keep the memory about the tragic past events alive.

  • Rocznice urodzin weteranów Komunistycznej Partii Chin w polityce wewnętrznej Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej

    Author: Adrian Brona
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 418-437
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201621
    PDF: siip/15/siip1521.pdf

    Birthday Anniversaries of the Veterans of Communist Party of China in the Internal Politics of the People’s Republic of China

    This article analyses functions of birthday commemoration of veterans of Communist Party of China. Content analyses of official ceremonial speeches and case study was applied to research ceremonies of 120th anniversary of Mao Zedong birthday and 100th anniversary of Xi Zhongxun, Hu Yaobang and Liu Huaqing birthdays. The study is based on Maurice Halbwachs’s concept of collective memory. The results shows legitimizing function of those events – both of party rule over China and Xi Jinping leadership in the party.

  • About Women in Conflicts and Wars: Theories of Violence and Collective Memory

    Author: Inga B. Kuźma
    Institution: University of Łódź (Poland)
    Author: Edyta Pietrzak
    Institution: Łódź University of Technology (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 49-64
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2019103
    PDF: ppsy/48-1/ppsy2019103.pdf

    The article deals with the subject of relations between theories of violence and the category of collective memory in relation to women’s war stories. The text introduces the issue of war and conflict, understanding the theory of violence, the category of collective memory and female war narratives, as well as the ways of their political interpretation. The interpretation is crucial because of method used in the research, meaning hermeneutics, but also because of the, presented here, perspective of polyphony.

  • Memoriał Ofi ar Komunizmu w Tallinie. Symbolika miejsca pamięci

    Author: Marcin Zaborski
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 87-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.06
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6606.pdf

    Autor przedstawia genezę i analizuje symbolikę Memoriału Ofiar Komunizmu w Tallinie. Skupia się na założeniach koncepcyjnych przyjętych przez jego autorów, ale też bierze pod uwagę dokonywane później interpretacje przesłania monumentu. Przywołuje wydarzenia, do których odnosi się to miejsce pamięci. Opisuje okres sowieckiej okupacji Estonii i przedstawia bilans dokonywanych w tamtym czasie represji - masowych aresztowań, potajemnych egzekucji, deportacji ludności i brutalnej kolektywizacji rolnictwa. Tak zarysowany kontekst historyczny pozwala lepiej zrozumieć znaczenie opisywanego pomnika i jego miejsce na mapie pamięci współczesnej Estonii. Autor zwraca jednocześnie uwagę, że talliński pomnik stanowi istotny element nie tylko estońskiej, ale też - szerzej - europejskiej pamięci o ofiarach stalinizmu i komunizmu.

  • The Function of Collective Memory in the Creation of a New Nation in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat

    Author: Gulden Kazaz Celik
    Institution: Sabancı University School of Languages
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7061-9261
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 54-63
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2022103
    PDF: rop/19/rop1903.pdf

    This paper aims to share a story of Kenya narrated by Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat and analyse its narrative in accordance with Ernest Renan’s article entitled “What is a Nation?” to reveal a part of its journey from their dependence on the British colonial rule to their independence. The whole novel is anchored in the collective memories of some of the Kenyans, describing what they have undergone so far under the British colonial rule and how they have gained their independence with the help of the Mau Mau freedom fighters who mostly sacrifice their own life for their nation’s peace and liberation. This collective memory helps them get together to remember their past and build their present for their future and at this point Thiong’o’s novel seems to echo Renan’s arguments focusing on the basics of the nation. As Renan states in the article, embracing the past memories, accepting all the stories of sacrifice and devotion as well as their own suffering, holding a common and strong will for the present and building the future by punishing the traitors as an example for the others who might think of betraying their togetherness and unity are all the requirements to be fulfilled to create a new nation and Thiong’o’ appears to apply each of them to be sure that they eventually have their own independent nation.

  • Podejście semiologiczne w badaniach nad zjawiskiem mitu politycznego na przykładzie mitu smoleńskiego

    Author: Bartosz Kwiatkowski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1761-3183
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 192-213
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201810
    PDF: siip/17/siip1710.pdf

    The semiological approach to the studies of the political myth by the example of the Smolensk myth

    This article is an attempt to present the Smolensk myth (which is a very important subject in Polish myth studies) from the perspective of the semiological approach. The analysis of the two most important theories in that field: one by Roland Barthes and another one by Tadeusz Biernat, will allow to examine the mythologization of the social and political reality after the Smolensk catastrophe. That examination will be conducted by analysing the ways of creating symbolic signs which may express the mythical political meaning. That analysis will also enable the depiction of the semiological meaning of political myths in the events or statements from the times after the catastrophe. In conclusion, the aim of this article will be a depiction of an historical event, which had an enormous impact on today’s Polish political reality, from the perspective of creation of the mythical constructs in the collective memory.

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