• Democracy at the Service of the Community

    Author: Danuta Plecka
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 70-90
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013006.pdf

    In popular consciousness, the dispute between the communitarians and the liberals focuses on citizens’ individualism and the role and place of the community in contemporary society. However, it is merely a simpli-fied vision of the topic of discussion between supporters of the currents of political thought indicated above. Indeed, a no less essential part of the debate concerns problems associated with the interpretation of the idea and the principles of democracy, their uses and importance in human life. The canon of fundamental values of democratic government includes freedom and equality. These principles are inherently conducive to the emergence of conflicts, as illustrated by the classic dilemma „the more freedom, the less equality, and the more equality, the less freedom.“ This particular problem has determined the emergence of two major theories of democracy: individualistic and collectivist. The main difference between these approaches to democracy concerns the view of the relationship between the state and society, and between the state and it‘s citizens. And thus, the individualistic current (procedural) derived from the traditions of the English Revolution aims to reduce the area of activity and competence of the government to the minimum specified explicitly in the rules of law. Consequently, both Society and citizens are free from the state, the latter becoming only the guardian of the laws.

  • Tożsamość ukraińskiego Lwowa: jak rodził się matecznik kulturowego oporu

    Author: Michał Urban
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński (Kraków, Polska)
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 135-148
    DOI Address:
    PDF: pomi/03/pomi201710.pdf

    The Identity of Ukrainian Lviv: how the stronghold of cultural resistance has been created. Th e aim of the essay is to present and explain the process of creation of the identity of contemporary Lviv. According to the author, in order to analyze this process, it is necessary to remember about cultural factors which can infl uence political aff airs. Th e essay includes an examination of the main cultural images composing the identity of the city, especially these believed to be attractive for the presented community, as well and these which are treated as the points of repulsion.

  • Kultura szkoły stymulująca kształtowanie uczącej się wspólnoty

    Author: Agata Cudowska
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 129–141
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/121/kie12108.pdf

    The article presents the concept of community as a sociological category, there are various ways to define it, the importance of sentiment, moral order, identification and contact in its meaning is emphasized. A learning community is identified as a group of people in contact with each other, having a sense of bond, awareness of their own identity and individuality, as well as experiencing mutual support, recognition and belonging. The determinants of the process of shaping such a community in the school are indicated and the focus is on school-related factors. The teacher’s role in creating a school culture conducive to creating a learning community is emphasized. The teacher’s knowledge and skills, his personal characteristics and attitude to life are emphasized, as well as the teacher’s motivation for continuous learning, self-reflection and self-evaluation of everyday practice. As a result of the analysis, it is found that the creation of a learning community at school is fostered by the culture of cooperation, dialogue and creativity, and at the same time this type of organizational culture can be influenced by the learning community.

  • Multiculturalism and Liberal Democracy

    Author: Andrzej Szahaj
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 209-220
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/112/kie11215.pdf

    The main goal of the article is to show the possible ways of thinking about the relation between multiculturalism and liberal democracy. Author of the article tries to present some troubles with reconciliation of such political culture and elements of multicultural ideology which supports rights of member of foreign (nonwestern) communities to manifest their cultural convictions freely. In his opinion that would be a little bit naïve to think that all elements of political culture connected with liberal democracy can be accepted by members of the communities in questions. That is why he articulates the thesis that some conflicts between them and people faithful to the ideas of liberal democracy are inevitable and that it cannot be found possible solution of these conflicts which can be gladly accepted by all sides. Someone will have to give up some parts of cultural heritage of a given community if we are supposed to live in peace together. Although the author of the article believes that this resignation should not be limited to only one side of the potential conflict he argues that a political culture of liberal democracy is so precious that its defenders should not abandon it for the sake of ideas of multicultural society even if this brings about some pain on the side of their interlocutors.

  • Community in a Virtual Classroom

    Author: Wioletta Kwiatkowska
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 66-76
    DOI Address:
    PDF: tner/201401/tner3505.pdf

    The main research objectives were presenting experiences of virtual classroom learners in the context of being part of a community or being indifferent towards it, as well as getting to know the value of the community in view of respondents, and the attitudes of respondents to the community. The research operated within the interpretive paradigm. The respondents were twenty six students of different majors at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. All the respondents emphasized the value of being part of a community; still, the opinions were diverse with regard to individual predispositions, skills and aptitudes of the learners. The obtained results are of great significance to the educational thought and practice and in relation to the growing importance of e-learning and its popularisation.

  • Dramaty tożsamości wpisane w pogranicze kultur. Implikacje edukacyjne

    Author: Jerzy Nikitorowicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 21-38
    DOI Address:
    PDF: em/16/em1601.pdf

    Identity dramas written into the cultural borderland. Educational implications

    In addition to the positive borderline effect, which is often presented in the literature, this text presents the dilemmas and tragedies of the individual, family and community, taking place on the border of cultures, religions and ethnicities. The methodological basis is the concept of the interpretation of the borderland and multi-range identity, through which I read and describe the fate of Emilia Moszczańska Kosiur Niewęgłowska presented by Grzegorz Dżus in the book “Banderowka”, published in 2020. The narration of the book’s main character allowed for presenting the process of shaping the family, individual and social identity. In this process, in the face of experiencing suspicion, helplessness, fear and humiliation, such questions dominate as: Who am I? Who am I to be? How am I to be? The author draws attention to the problem of the narrator’s internal dialogue, points to its value in the educational and humanistic context. He emphasizes how difficult but important, in the process of shaping identity, is the mediation of three areas of identity and the liberating oneself from the stigma of alienation experienced from all sides.

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