conflict

  • THE BACKGROUND OF THE DISPUTES OVER THE SOUTH CHINA SEA ISLANDS

    Author: Karol Kościelniak
    Institution: University in Poznań
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-19
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2014/rop201401.pdf

    In the light of the official statements made by the capitals of its coastal states, there is probably not a single centimetre of free space left in this sea, to which a claim has not been issued. In some parts of the sea, the claims of three, four of even five states overlap, creating a truly Gordian knot. The significance of the South China Sea causes that if the dispute over the archipelagos is not settled by implementing peaceful methods and means, at the negotiation table, East Asia region is likely to become a potential source of destabilisation and conflict whose size, in respect to the location and the number of parties directly or indirectly engaged in the dispute might turn out to be extremely hazardous.

  • Unia Europejska i NATO wobec wojny hybrydowej na Ukrainie

    Author: Anna Antczak-Barzan
    Institution: Akademia Finansów i Biznesu Vistula w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29–45
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2016.50.02
    PDF: apsp/50/apsp5002.pdf

    Artykuł ma na celu ukazanie przyczyn konfliktu na Ukrainie w odniesieniu do struktur zachodnich – Unii Europejskiej oraz NATO i ich reakcji na wydarzenia, jakie miały i mają miejsce w tym kraju, a także oczekiwań społeczności międzynarodowej i samej Ukrainy względem tych graczy. Artykuł uwypukla także specyficzne cechy konfliktu, które wskazują na jego hybrydowy charakter, wyjaśniając jednocześnie przyczyny i możliwe skutki.

  • The change of the attitude of Ukrainians to Russia in the conditions of the anti-terrorism operation and humanitarian aid needs of population of Donbass region: the results of sociological researches

    Author: Maxim Enin
    Institution: Narodowy Uniwersytet Techniczny Ukrainy
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 139-164
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip201608
    PDF: siip/15/siip1508.pdf

    The article describes the specific features of the new terrorism in the Donbass which has the support of Russia in the struggle for influence on the policy of Ukraine. The terrorist organizations on Donbass are specific territorial units. Using the concept ‘state’, focusing on the Orthodox faith and idea of ‘Russian world’ this terrorism has purpose to capture a new territory, intimidation and demoralization of Ukraine and the world community. In the context of anti-terrorist operation in the Donbass region we studied also the dynamic of changing the attitude of Ukrainians to Russia. From December 6 to December 15, 2014 the Kiev International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) conducted All–Ukrainian poll of public opinion. Deterioration of attitudes towards Russia is observed in all regions. At the same time for studying attitude of Russians to Ukraine the Levada-center in Russia from 23 to 26 January, 2015 conducted a survey on a representative selection for Russian.
    The purpose of the second research is monitoring humanitarian aid needs of the residents of Donbass (Donetsk and Lugansk region). The research was conducted by the Kiev International Institute of Sociology (KIIS) in December 2014 (the author of article is one of the organizers of this research). The humanitarian situation in Donbas has deteriorated during period from December 2014 to September 2015: increased number of respondents who estimate the situation of living conditions as unbearable in their localities. A significant share surveyed population (15%) would like to leave the localities of Lugansk and Donetsk region but they are not able. Despite a distress half of the residents of Donbass are optimistic and unite to help each other.

  • Między konfliktem a współistnieniem. Stosunki hindusko-muzułmańskie na wybranych obszarach wiejskich w północno-zachodnich Indiach

    Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
    E-mail: n.zajaczkowska@interia.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Łódzki
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-68
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018103
    PDF: so/13/so1303.pdf

    Between Conflict and Coexistence: A Case Study of Hindu-Muslim Relations in Rural North-Western India

    The Partition of India upset the status quo causing riots, casualties and a colossal wave of migration that sent thousands of Muslims to their new homeland, Pakistan. Despite the mass violence and displacement, around 35 million Muslims eventually stayed in India. The tensed Hindu–Muslim relations in the aftermath of the Partition intensified a long-standing rivalry between the two groups and led to a feeling of insecurity among Muslims. Strained relations among Hindus and Muslims, which stay at the forefront of social concerns in contemporary India, remain a major cause of worry and call for an in-depth analysis. The article focuses on how the Hindu-Muslim relations developed throughout the modern history, especially during the times of the Indian Independence Movement. The goal of my research is to elucidate historical, social and political contexts of Hindu– Muslim relations in India and to shed a new light on this multifaceted issue. After presenting a historical perspective on Hindu-Muslim relations, the article provides a case study on both communities’ attitudes towards each other. Based on two months of fieldwork conducted in Northern villages of India in January and February 2018, I investigate the multiple stereotypes about Muslims prevailing among Hindu rural community. I address a question whether the character of this uneasy relation is closer to coexistence or a hidden conflict.

  • Prawosławni Palestyńczycy – pomiędzy muzułmanami, Żydami i Grekami

    Author: Dominika Kovačević
    E-mail: domkov@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 90-112
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2018105
    PDF: so/13/so1305.pdf

    Orthodox Palestinians – between Muslims, Jews and Greeks

    Palestinians are not a homogeneous group. One of the minority groups are Christians, the majority of whom is Orthodox. Although relatively few have stayed in their homeland, they still play an important role there. The Orthodox Palestinians have a strong feeling of identity, both ethnically, as Arabs, and religiously as Orthodox Christians. They face problems in three main domains. First, they are exposed to the same forms of discrimination from the Israeli regime as the rest of Palestinians – they are deprived of the opportunity to create and be part of their own, fully independent state. Second, they are a minority living among the Sunni majority nation. Thirdly, despite being a majority in their Church – Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem – they are under Greek domination in various areas. All these factors render the situation of Orthodox Palestinians very complex. The aim of this article is to show this situation and its potential influence on the Palestinian question and the Orthodox Church issues.

  • A “New” Middle East? Implications for Israel’s Security

    Author: Agnieszka Bryc
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.64.01
    PDF: apsp/64/apsp6401.pdf

    The turbulent changes in the Middle East which were seen at the very beginning as good news for Israel, at the end of the day became more ambiguous. The Arab Spring and then the war in Syria that had erupted along with massive social protests ended up with regime changes, but what was crucial, the primary success of the Arab awakening was captured by Islamist movements. The changes in the Middle East were even deeper due to at least two factors – Russia „coming into” and the United States „going out” of the region. These new regional circumstances combined with the geopolitical shift in the Middle East and a crumbling American supervision made Israel conclude that its security has become more complex and the U.S has no more been the only significant great power player in the region. Hence the difficult political and military situation around Israel has created a need to adapt to security challenges and simultaneously, to take political opportunities. The goal of this paper is to highlight basic ramifications for Israeli security and diplomacy of the American and Russian factors in the current Middle East politics. The key questions are: How to secure Israeli interests in these new circumstances? How to assess, on the one hand, the risk of the ongoing decline of American interests in the region and, on the other hand, the complexity of the Russian strategy in the Middle East? Finally, whether Israel might be able to gain recognition by the Arab world, not to mention to keep its strategic domination in the region which is already being challenged by the Islamic Republic of Iran and its nuclear ambitions.

  • Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
    E-mail: natalia.zajaczkowska@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Lodz
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020206
    PDF: so/18/so1806.pdf

    Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    The history of Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India is century-long. Ever mounting hostility of Hindus has been the primary reason why Muslim minorities in India have fallen victim to the increasing levels of systemic violence. COVID-19 has undergone another dangerous mutation and took Islamophobia to the whole new level. Instead of uniting in the face of danger, we are observing the growing social divisions on the Hindu-Muslim line and the galloping increase in distrust between the two. Are Muslims terrorists who are engaged in jihād using the virus as a weapon? Such superficial judgement is not in the interest of anyone. Nuanced understanding of the novel witch-hunt against Muslims is essential before jumping to any hasty conclusion. The present study aims to explore the consequences of the pandemic for Muslim communities in India, as well as conspiracy theories such as corona jihād, bio jihād, love jihād or population jihād that began to flourish amid the coronavirus crisis.

  • Azerbaijan and the Security Complex of The South Caucasus

    Author: Kseniia Pashaieva
    E-mail: kseniya.p.2014@gmail.com
    Institution: Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University,
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002- 2576-6403
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 13-29
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2020101
    PDF: rop/11/rop1101.pdf

    This article reviews the academic literature on the regional security complex of the South Caucasus, which has been drawing the attention of the academic community for a long time. The paper aims to examine the security dynamics in the South Caucasus with a focus on Azerbaijan and a way in which domestic security is interconnected and linked to the region`s neighborhood and global arena. The conceptual framework for the paper is the regional security complex theory, elaborated by Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver. South Caucasus is an unstable region with several secessionist conflicts and interstate wars, exposed to the influence of its neighbors, which shape the regional security environment. Besides, the region is riven by geopolitical fractures as regional states have various foreign policy orientations, which hampers the resolution of regional conflicts and complicates cooperation. The research is carried at three levels of analysis - the domestic level, reviewing internal vulnerabilities and state to state relations, interregional level, examining dynamics between regional and neighboring states, and the last level - global, considering the interplay between regional and the world-leading powers. Correspondingly, sections of the paper study internal challenges and threats of the regional states, examine relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and their neighborhood - Turkey, Iran, Russia, as well as global powers - the EU and the US to analyze similar and conflicting interests and patterns of influence. The article concludes that the South Caucasus security environment is unstable, hampered by the failure of democratic transformation and unresolved conflicts, namely Nagorno-Karabakh, which Russia uses as a tool to keep Caucasian states in a sphere of its influence. It is evident that Azerbaijan plays a vital role in the production and transit of hydrocarbons from the Caspian region to Europe. Therefore, it is crucial to eliminate threats coming from the region and to ensure the security of energy infrastructure, carrying energy resources westwards.

  • The Constitution as the Basis for Strategic Principles of a Strategic Leader in the Chaos of Conflict

    Author: Maciej Milczanowski
    E-mail: mmilczanowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2322-2074
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 593-601
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.48
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5848.pdf

    The Constitution - the Basic Law is the foundation of the organization in a given country. It defines the general principles of the functioning of internal relations, the competences of its most important elements, and the fundamental rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen2. And the strategy can be perceived as the general outlines of the actions of competent leaders determining the far-reaching aim. It is characterized by a long-term strategic perspective, combining the set of with the strive for solutions that are beneficial not only for themselves, their surroundings, and supporters but also for the paradigm of the common good. Societies during, or immediately after the conflict, seek stabilization. That can be ensured by actions based on a strategy that takes into account the fundamental principles of internal relations. Combining those two paradigms, the Constitution, taking into account the rights of minorities, guaranteeing civil liberties and human rights, may be the basic factor of the strategy of the competent leader, aiming to post-conflict stabilization.

  • Persistent Conflict and Perceived Post-Conflict Peacebuilding in Southern Kaduna Region of Nigeria

    Published online: 30 June 2021
    Final submission: 16 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Tunde A. Abioro
    E-mail: abiorotunde@gmail.com
    Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University (Nigeria)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4508-8555
    Source: Show
    Page no: 11
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202129
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202129.pdf

    The cycle of individual and communal lives from birth to death is supposedly preserved by the government through institutions. However, political, social, and economic activities are engaged to make ends meet wherein the government is to serve as an unbiased regulator. The activities that play out in Southern Kaduna reflected politics of being on one side with interplay on origin, identity, religion, and locality. On the other hand, it reflects politics of belonging that play on kin, reciprocity, and stranger status. It has thus resulted in violence, suspicion, and persistent conflict. The study examines citizen’s inclusiveness in peacebuilding initiatives and the people’s perception of the sincerity of the government. The research relies on secondary sources where governmental and non-governmental publications and documents from relevant and reliable sources enriched the socio-historical approach, particularly those relating to contestation in the region. The study found out that just like situations in the other northwest states of the country, the crisis exacerbates by the government’s inability to mediate fairly between warring parties to ensure fairness and justice as well as failure to apprehend and punish the culprits, even as recommendations from the various interventions were unimplemented. Thus, the spate of violence continues.

  • Konflikt w Górskim Karabachu – implikacje dla bezpieczeństwa Republiki Azerbejdżanu

    Author: Justyna Misiągiewicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie – Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 196-209
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.70.12
    PDF: apsp/70/apsp7012.pdf

    Celem opracowania jest analiza specyfiki konfliktu w Górskim Karabachu oraz jego implikacji dla bezpieczeństwa Azerbejdżanu. Określono tym samym genezę konfliktu, jego przedmiot oraz proces pokojowy. Azerbejdżan postrzegał konflikt karabaski jako zagrażający jego integralności terytorialnej i niepodległości oraz roli międzynarodowej. Porozumienie z listopada 2020 roku można traktować jako sukces polityki Azerbejdżanu, gdyż sankcjonuje prawnie przyłączenie większości terytorium Górskiego Karabachu.

  • Understanding identity, confl ict, and trauma through literary texts of selected women writers of North-East India

    Author: Sanghamitra Choudhury
    E-mail: schoudhury.oxon@gmail.com
    Institution: Sikkim University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1417-1735
    Author: Shailendra Kumar
    E-mail: theskumar7@gmail.com
    Institution: Sikkim University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7493-5496
    Author: Jayanta Madhab Tamuly
    Institution: University of Science and Technology
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 13-41
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021301
    PDF: rop/17/rop1701.pdf

    Literature is a consequential medium that reflects human phenomena through artistic mode. It helps in recalling past traumatic experiences though more often in a masked form. The memories of the bellicose conflicts are recounted by the victims long after the harrowing events get safely buried in history and no longer accessible to the present. People conventionally forget the source of the trauma yet they recollect it through literary betokens like poems, musical compositions, plays, novels, stories, etc. The literary texts play a vital role in recalling and understanding a particular conflict through the wounded psyche which no historical or any other narratives can reach as efficaciously. This is one of the main reasons why literary discourses rather than historical narratives are comparatively more efficacious in portraying conflicts. This manuscript highlights what literature tells us about a particular conflict that social science literature has missed on. It additionally accentuates how literary discourses of select women writers from Northeast India proved to be more reliable representations of conflicts because they endeavor to capture the unknowable and inexpressible far more efficaciously through tropes and images. The manuscript is unique in the sense that it attempts to establish a periscopic understanding of identity, conflict, and trauma within literary prisms and for this, the manuscript utilizes the inditements of six women writers from northeast India like Arupa Patangia Kalita, Ratna Bharali Talukdar (State of Assam), Temsula Ao, Easterine Iralu (State of Nagaland), Irom Sharmila, and Ningombam Sunita (State of Manipur).

  • The sociocultural perspective of farmers-herders conflict and national integration

    Author: Dickson Ogbonnaya
    E-mail: princedxn2010@hotmail.com
    Institution: National Open University of Nigeria
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 106-131
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021306
    PDF: rop/17/rop1706.pdf

    Globally, sociocultural component of social relations weaves into shades of interactions including one existing between Farmers-Herders in their agricultural engagements to generate value that strengthens national integration. Migration pattern and choice expose migrant’s cross-cultural contact without insulating both sides from conflict which however, is a social fact and reality of all social relations. Drawing from the foregoing, the study argues that there is conflict of culturally derived identity interest among returning and settler’s migrants in first contact like in the case of Farmers-Herders, however, is largely a major conflicts driver that endangers sense of patriotism needed for national integration. It further argues that interest quest enables national consciousness and cultural chauvinism and that determines access and denial. However, while a lot of researches have gone into Farmers-Herders contact and conflicts, little of the sociocultural context of their interactions is known in northeast geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Hence, the focus of this study is to examine the sociocultural perspective of farmers-herders conflict as a challenge to national integration. Using Frustration-Aggression theory as framework, the exploratory research adopted qualitative approach to gather data via the conduct of 18 in-depth and 18 key informant interviews on purposively selected respondents two each from the 18 senatorial zones of six states in in North East Nigeria.

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