The reform of higher education in the Republic of Poland, which was introduced by the Act of 20 July 2018 Law on higher education and science (Dz.U. 2018, item 1668, as amended; hereinafter: Law on higher education and science), revitalized interests in the freedom of scientific research, optimal ways of its implementation and the role of the state in the support of scientific and research activities. For this reason providing an answer to questions concerning the genesis of regulation of the freedom of scientific research in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April, 1997 (Dz.U. 1997, No. 78, item 483, as amended; hereinafter: the Constitution of the Republic of Poland), specifically in relation to its recognition and position in the Polish constitution, the normative content of the freedom, the beneficiaries and entities obliged to comply with it, appears appropriate. These issues seem to be of particular importance. First of all, the freedom of scientific research shall be one of the crucial elements of a knowledge-based economy, with a significant role of higher educational institutions. Secondly, the proper functioning of universities indicates a broader establishment of human rights. What is more, the hitherto undertaken attempts to define the freedom of scientific research seem not to be incisive enough. The aim of this article, therefore, is to draw attention to the issues and difficulties associated with the freedom of scientific research. The answers given to the aforementioned questions, however, having regard to the limited scope of the publication, cannot be deemed definitive.