constructivism

  • Ethnicity and ethnicities Part II

    Scientific paradigm changes are frequently accompanied by the reconsideration of central terms and ideas. This article demonstrates how this process is currently underway in Russian anthropological studies [narodovedenie] as part of a broader move away from ethnography to theoretical ethnology. The article also shows lines of succession and divergence between various paradigms currently dominant in Russian anthropology, including primordialism and constructivism, and presents the author’s vision of a definition of “ethnicity”, instruments needed to study ethnicities, the nature of “ethnicity,” the underlying axioms on which ethnicities are conceptualized. An initial attempt has been made in the article to outline the central positions that would provide for a principally new ethnological paradigm by way of a new definition of the phenomenon of ethnicity.

  • Ethnicity and ethnicities Part I

    Scientific paradigm changes are frequently accompanied by the reconsideration of central terms and ideas. This article demonstrates how this process is currently underway in Russian anthropological studies [narodovedenie] as part of a broader move away from ethnography to theoretical ethnology. The article also shows lines of succession and divergence between various paradigms currently dominant in Russian anthropology, including primordialism and constructivism, and presents the author’s vision of a definition of “ethnicity”, instruments needed to study ethnicities, the nature of “ethnicity,” the underlying axioms on which ethnicities are conceptualized. An initial attempt has been made in the article to outline the central positions that would provide for a principally new ethnological paradigm by way of a new definition of the phenomenon of ethnicity.

  • Modern Educational Tools in the Teacher’s Work

    The article serves as a summary of one of the parts of the research carried out under the NP-2550 grant in the Department of Education and Media in Education of the Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences at Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The presented analyses concern the application of modern educational tools in the process of education. The work includes a discussion of the frequency, as well as ways, of using ICT devices by early education teachers. It shows the relationship between the presence of modern computer tools in the teaching process and the constructive-cognitive character of activities undertaken in the classroom. The research referred to was carried out among 148 teachers in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Province. The analyses presented to the reader are mainly based on the quantitative data obtained on the basis of: knowledge and skills tests, observation, as well as surveys. The research material was supplemented with qualitative data obtained through the conducted interviews.

  • Relations Between Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Teaching Practice in Serbia

    Theoretical framework within which this paper is set is the conception of teachers’ epistemological beliefs. The author’s attention is focused on the classification of teachers’ beliefs in the realistic, contextual and relativistic approach. The question that permeates this study is whether the teacher’s beliefs are consistent with their work in practice. A questionnaire was made for the purpose of the research and the sample encompasses 420 teachers in Serbia. Results show that the subjects mostly estimate that they belong to a constructivist profile. However, their answers indicate that their acting is different from their self-assessment. Research findings imply a need for an awakening of teachers with regards to personal epistemologies.

  • Językowy obraz świata i jego istnienie

    Linguistic pictures of world and its existence

    The linguistic image of the world, as a fundamental concept of contemporary cognitive linguistics, has been the subject of numerous material and theoretical studies. This resulted in a multiplicity of its definitions, which the author of this article analyzed in terms of ontological points present in them. From the point of view of kantianism and constructivism, he tries to engage in a debate with supporters of philosophical and semantic realism who perceive the linguistic image of the world as the property of an objectively existing society.

  • SUPERARE LE DIFFICOLTÀ NEL RICONOSCIMENTO DEL SOGGETTO NELLA LINGUA ITALIANA

    OVERCOMING DIFFICULTIES IN SUBJECT IDENTIFICATION IN THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE

    Identifying the subject in a sentence, especially if the subject is not obvious, is difficult for secondary-school students. The apparent simplicity of this topic might cause one to consider it lightly; however, it should be considered generative for textual comprehension, for the production of cohesive and coherent texts, and for moving from parataxis to hypotaxis. Traditional grammar equates the syntactic notion of subject with the semantic notion of agent and with the communicative notion of topic, giving rise to possible misunderstandings.
    The present article offers a proposal that allows one to solve any ambiguity, developing a trajectory with two phases. Firstly, by using a functional criterion within the language (i.e., going from the singular to the plural of the sentence terms), students can correctly identify the subject. Secondly, through a semantic analysis carried out in competence-heterogeneous groups, students inductively comprehend the complexity of the function of “subject”, thereby linking the semantic criterion with the syntactic one.
    This analysis, only initially teacher-led, fosters learning by discovery, which brings students to an active, inclusively realised construction of knowledge, and it allows each student to work within their zone of proximal development. This method overcomes traditional “normative” grammar and enhances the student’s centrality: students are not given a ready-made description, but, rather, they are encouraged to build one by actively acting upon on the language.

  • Instytucjonalizacja relacji międzynarodowych w perspektywie wybranych teorii stosunków międzynarodowych

    INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE SELECTED THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    The aim of the article is to point out differences between theories of the IR (International Relations) in the process of explanation of the institutionalization of international relations. Selected theories of the International Relations were chosen that belong to the rationalist and constructivist paradigm in the International Relations studies.
    Since the 80s, institutionalization has been a matter of reflection of researchers. This follows from the dynamics and specificity of the contemporary international relations – quantitative growth of various forms of international institutions (international organizations, regimes, norms, or transnational actors). They start to play an increasingly important role. It is assumed that such institutions have an impact on the behavior of states in the international system. This raises the question of how to study that influence. The answer to that question is different depending on the theoretical perspective used for analyses.

  • The condition of teachers and their preparation for work, implications of intercultural education in poland

    What is referred to are the results of nationwide quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in several academic environments. The research constitutes the background against which the condition (the current health, inner intellectual and professional situation) of future teachers is shown as well as the determinants of their preparation for work in multicultural conditions. An authored multisided model of teachers’ education has been also presented. The research approach and interpretation of results have been subordinated mainly to social developmental psychology, the idea of constructivist understanding of individual and social development and intercultural education. In applying the constructivist approach, incorporated into pedagogy from other disciplines, the author’s proposal can be seen referring to constructivism with the aim of understanding experiences of adults. It should be emphasized that in the pedagogical literature this mainly concerns the knowledge of small children. The presented study provides a lot of new information and opens new prospects of further research on the border of intercultural education and general pedagogy, pedeutology, several sub-disciplines of psychology and sociology, as well as of other fields of broadly understood humanities, which can enhance the development of intercultural pedagogy.

  • Pedagogical premises of the use of tablets in the teaching process

    The article is a summary of one part of the research conducted in the Department of Didactics and Media in Education, regarding the use of tablets in the teaching process. The paper provides an overview of the frequency of use, as well as ways of using the tools by students of the humanities. It presents the relationship between the presence of tablets in the teaching process and the cognitive-constructivist nature of acting. The presented study was carried out among 396 students of the humanities. The study used diagnostic survey methods, as well as the pedagogical crossover experiment.

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