COVID-19

  • Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    Author: Natalia Zajączkowska
    E-mail: natalia.zajaczkowska@uni.lodz.pl
    Institution: University of Lodz
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 77-91
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2020206
    PDF: so/18/so1806.pdf

    Hindu-Muslim Relations in Times of Coronavirus

    The history of Hindu-Muslim conflicts in India is century-long. Ever mounting hostility of Hindus has been the primary reason why Muslim minorities in India have fallen victim to the increasing levels of systemic violence. COVID-19 has undergone another dangerous mutation and took Islamophobia to the whole new level. Instead of uniting in the face of danger, we are observing the growing social divisions on the Hindu-Muslim line and the galloping increase in distrust between the two. Are Muslims terrorists who are engaged in jihād using the virus as a weapon? Such superficial judgement is not in the interest of anyone. Nuanced understanding of the novel witch-hunt against Muslims is essential before jumping to any hasty conclusion. The present study aims to explore the consequences of the pandemic for Muslim communities in India, as well as conspiracy theories such as corona jihād, bio jihād, love jihād or population jihād that began to flourish amid the coronavirus crisis.

  • Restrictions on Human Rights and Freedoms During the Time of Epidemic in Poland

    Author: Agnieszka Gajda
    E-mail: agnieszka.gajda@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdansk
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1348-174X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.01
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5701.pdf

    When in 2020 the World Health Organization announced a COVID-19 contagious disease pandemic, it was clear that governments must take actions to limit the consequences of pandemia. Poland was one of the first to introduce far-reaching measures, limiting freedom of movement and closing an increasing number of business and activities. The Polish Constitution contains potential extraordinary measures, including the provision for declaring a “state of natural disaster”, but the Polish government has refrained from enacting it. Instead, it is based on a “state of epidemic”, which is not provided for in the Constitution as the legal ground for limiting human rights. The purpose of this study is to answer the question whether human rights restrictions introduced during the epidemic have a sufficient legal basis from the point of view of the Polish Constitution and the resulting principles.

  • New Challenges for the Right to Privacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic - The Outline of the Problem

    Author: Olga Hałub-Kowalczyk
    E-mail: olga.halub@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2747-2625
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 421-430
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.05.31
    PDF: ppk/57/ppk5731.pdf

    At the beginning 2020, the vast majority of countries worldwide were forced to confront and face the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The rapid spread of this new disease resulted in radical changes in the basic principles of the functioning and organization of states and entire societies. The novel circumstances which both nation states and the international community are facing induce reflection on the need of redefining the right to privacy. This paper aims to answer, whether the current situation will lead to lasting changes in the way privacy is now perceived in Europe and what threats may be associated with the possible changes.

  • Possibility of Implementing the Concept of the Intermarium in the Context of Militant Democracy in Poland During and After the Coronavirus Pandemic

    Author: Kamila Rezmer-Płotka
    E-mail: kamila.rezmer@onet.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1458-5076
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-110
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020306
    PDF: ppsy/49-3/ppsy2020306.pdf

    Intermarium is one of the most important Polish geopolitical concepts. This article considers it within the category of militant democracy. It allows to explore the process of militant democracy, that is, introducing restrictions by legal means. Most restrictions have recently been introduced due to a coronavirus pandemic. Therefore, the article undertakes to examine the potential for implementation of the concept of the Intermarium during the pandemic and shortly after its end. The study uses a qualitative analysis of sources. Indicators relevant to the study of the process of militant democracy were distinguished based on the body of literature. Results: The traditional concept of the Intermarium erodes due to natural causes. Currently, Poland is more inclined to the concept of the Three Seas. In addition, in the face of the analysis that was carried out, it seems that in a pandemic situation we are observing the end of the paradigm of liberal democracy in this case.

  • Limitation of Human Rights During the Crisis Events in Ukraine: Lessons and Outlooks

    Author: Iryna Symonova
    E-mail: simohova02@gmail.com
    Institution: Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1771-0511
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 67-82
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20200204
    PDF: ksm/26/ksm2604.pdf

    The paper reveals modern problems of limiting, ensuring, and realizing human rights during crisis events in Ukraine. The unsatisfactory state of the social protection system of Ukraine in the pre-crisis period is revealed (including problems of unstructured legislation, excessive financial burden, etc.). The article analyzes the existing guarantees and standards of human rights during the pandemic (included in the selected international documents and the Constitution of Ukraine). Several negative factors faced by the most vulnerable social groups during the crisis were addressed (for IDPs – problems of displacement, residence, job search; for the older population – problems of social security, treatment of chronic diseases, movement restrictions, and relevant age-based discrimination; for the homeless – absolute insecurity from all manifestations of the COVIDfueled crisis; for the detained and imprisoned – problems of penitentiary medical care, postponement of amnesty and subsequent rehabilitation). The paper assesses the relevant normative documents regulating social relations during the pandemic in terms of their positive and negative impact on the above risk groups (facilitated with the analysis of additional financial aid and payments, legal restrictions, the impact of the increasing financial burden on state and local budgets due to quarantine, the unconstitutionality of certain provisions and the lack of adequate legal response from the Constitutional Court of Ukraine). Conclusions were drawn based on the analysis of the officially established strategy to combat COVID-19, supplemented by a prognosis of the long-term consequences of its implementation (the pros and cons of the selected strategy of simultaneous “hard” and “soft” quarantine measures, the lack of long-term care policy, unpreparedness for vaccination and the restoration of the pre-pandemic way of everyday life).

  • Admissibility of Remote Deliberation and Voting in the Polish Parliament. The Functioning of the Sejm and Senate During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Author: Radosław Grabowski
    E-mail: rgrabowski@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3362-7363
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 149-158
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.11
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5811.pdf

    The dynamic development of the COVID-19 epidemic hampered the functioning of administrative bodies, especially those consisting of many people. In 2020, many countries had to solve the problem of how to adapt their laws to the requirements of the pandemic, while maintaining the safety requirements of members of parliaments. The introduced solutions included suspending the proceedings, modifying the quorum, or changing the voting method. Few countries (including Poland) have fully used the available technologies, deciding to allow parliaments to hold and vote remotely. The conducted analysis is aimed at identifying the systemic solutions that made it possible to introduce such solutions, as well as at determining what modifications of the legal system were necessary to establish innovative solutions.

  • Głosowanie korespondencyjne podczas pandemii Covid-19. Doświadczenia z polskich wyborów prezydenckich w 2020 r.

    Author: Magdalena Musiał-Karg
    E-mail: magdalena.musial-karg@amu.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6089-1381
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-48
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.02.02
    PDF: ppk/60/ppk6002.pdf

    Postal vote during the Covid-19 pandemic. Experiences from the Polish presidential election in 2020

    In order to guarantee a higher level of implementation of the principle of universality of elections, many countries introduce additional (other than voting at a polling station) forms of voting in elections. Postal voting is one of the most popular alternative voting methods – complementary to traditional voting. If this form is the only way to partici- pate in elections – there appear doubts as to the low degree of guarantee of the principle of universality. The aim of this article is to analyze Poland’s rather limited experienc- es with postal voting, with particular emphasis on the organization of elections during the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Działalność Unii Europejskiej przeciw pandemii COVID-19 na Ukrainie

    Author: Marta Labuda
    E-mail: marta.labuda@doctoral.uj.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5327-9426
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 9-21
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212801
    PDF: npw/28/npw2801.pdf

    European Union Activity Against the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ukraine

    The article is an attempt to look at the activity of the European Union against the COVID19 pandemic in Ukraine. The purpose of the research is to demonstrate successes and failures of the EU’s activity in this area. The main research question posed in the article is: How did the EU’s activity affect the course of the pandemic in Ukraine? The main research hypothesis is statement that the EU’s activity has caused a significant mobilization in implementing reforms in Ukraine, but so far it has not resulted in a decrease in the number of COVID-19 cases in the country. The research has been based on a qualitative methodology, with the document analysis strategy. The research material consisted of primary acts of the EU’s institutions, government data of Ukraine and internet portals devoted to the issue. Research shows that the EU’s activity against the COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine has proved successful in terms of the need to finance actions to overcome the negative effects of it.

  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Relations Between Government and Parliamentary Opposition in Spain

    Published online: 7 July 2021
    Final submission: 30 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Agata Rydzewska
    E-mail: a.rydzewska14@student.uw.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7772-4275
    Source: Show
    Page no: 12
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202130
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202130.pdf

    The COVID-19 strongly affected the states all over the world in several aspects, Spain, being an inglorious leader in terms of the number of infections in Europe, was highly afflicted by the coronavirus and further consequences. After problems with forming the government, which was caused by substantial political polarization, a new incumbent coalition needed to face new challenges, which was strictly connected with managing the coronavirus crisis. The article’s main aim is to present how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the political situation in Spain by analyzing the relations between the ruling government and the parliamentary opposition.

  • Digitization in the Era of Coronavirus – A Review

    Published online: 10 July 2021
    Final submission: 29 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Łukasz Pietraszek
    E-mail: lukasz.pietraszek@protonmail.com
    Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University, Poland
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9284-4117
    Source: Show
    Page no: 8
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202132
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202132.pdf

    In the modern world, the development of technology has a significant impact on various areas of human functioning. However, the appearance of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic and the need to implement numerous restrictions resulted in an even greater increase in the importance of new technologies, especially in such sectors as education, administration, or finance. In Poland, the introduction of the remote work system encountered many difficulties related to the unpreparedness of previous structures to implement such solutions. An example of a country where they operate efficiently, responding to the problems that Poland faces today, is Estonia, in which, beginning from 2004, the state administration sector has been gradually replaced by a digital system based on Blockchain technology. At present, in Poland, appropriate steps are already taken by the Ministry of Digitization to digitize public administration in the form of a plan of four streams. Given the protracted pandemic, the possibilities for immediate solutions and considering the advantages and disadvantages of digitizing the state seem worth attention.

  • Sukces Królestwa Bhutanu w czasach pandemii – przykład świadomego działania czy przypadku?

    Author: Katarzyna Sopolińska
    E-mail: kate.sopolinska@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6860-5530
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 42-54
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021203
    PDF: so/20/so2003.pdf

    The article addresses the fight of the Kingdom of Bhutan against the coronavirus pandemic from the beginning of 2020 to the end of September 2020 and answers the title question. Stages of the spread of the disease during the period indicated in the title are presented, as well as the accompanying actions of the public authorities whose task was, among others, to minimize its effects. Particular attention was paid to the king – his activity, including social media, image and the content of his public speeches. Economic solutions designed to counteract the crisis and support citizens in the difficult situation are also presented.

  • Antonine Plague, Black Death and Smallpox Epidemic versus COVID-19. How Did Humankind Cope with the Grapple Against the Biggest Epidemics, and What Does it Look Like Today?

    Author: Agnieszka Banaś
    E-mail: agnieszkabanas1992@onet.pl
    Institution: University of Opole
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9095-0883
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 82-98
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021206
    PDF: so/20/so2006.pdf

    This article is devoted to the problems that prevail in times from antiquity to the present day. The specter of an epidemic, known to humankind since the dawn of time, was a negative phenomenon, destabilizing contemporary life and having a significant impact on biological, social, economic and cultural aspects. It was impossible to protect against the epidemic – until the 19th century, medicine did much more damage than we might imagine. Doctors were powerless against diseases, they healed as much as they could, unable to overcome the specter of the coming plague. Is not that also the case today? COVID-19 is not much different from the “epidemics” that hit our country in previous centuries. Both in the past and today, there is no cure for the disease that prevails today, only to treat its external symptoms. The juxtaposition of some of the largest in the history of the world right now, and comparing them to the COVID-19 raging since autumn 2019 shows us that with the medicine of that time, we are not threatened with such depopulation of the world as it used to be... to our heritage, look at the works on the plagues to learn from them for the future. The article cites historical and literary sources, as well as older or newer studies, showing how much evil epidemics once caused, how people tried to protect against them, and if the threat appeared in their area, how it was fought.

  • Madagascar and its covid organics. Issues arising

    Author: Ebele Angela Udeoji
    E-mail: ebeleudeoji@yahoo.com
    Institution: National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)
    Author: Ikenna Arthur Amanchukwu
    Institution: Renaissance University Ugbawka Enugu state Nigeria
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 134-151
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021210
    PDF: rop/16/rop1610.pdf

    The unrelenting spread of the Corona Virus (Covid-19) pandemic through all nations of the world has sent medical researchers on a frenzied search for a cure. The island nation of Madagascar, in Africa, surprisingly contributed to this global research effort through its ‘Covid Organics syrup’. Presently, though, the Covid Organics syrup is no longer seriously touted as a viable cure for Covid-19. However, its advancement has thrown up issues relating not only to research and development in itself and in herbal remedies, but also on the ability of herbal development to play a role in ensuring sustainable development. The paper reviews these issues and the potentialities of herbal therapy vis-à-vis the global quest for sustainable development.

  • The Impact of COVID-19: Rwanda’s case

    Author: Vicente C. Sinining
    Institution: Director African Health Development Organization in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-27
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202002
    PDF: cip/18/cip1802.pdf

    The author describes the development of COVID-19 disease in Rwanda. He paid special attention to the measures taken by the government to minimize the spread of the virus. These measures, although key factors in the effective management of the health crisis, have far-reaching social and economic consequences.

  • Impact of Covid-19 pandemic on of the world

    Author: Benjamin Mudaheranwa
    Institution: University of Rwanda
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 188-201
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202009
    PDF: cip/18/cip1809.pdf

    The author analyzes a number of issues regarding the impact of Covid-19 on societies in Africa, Asia, the USA and Europe. Author describes the expanded of the coronavirus and the effects of the pandemic. Particular attention is paid to analyzes economic, political, social and psychosocial problems of selected countries.

  • Ekonomia polityczna pandemii. Czy kryzys zagrozi współczesnemu kapitalizmowi?

    Author: Sławomir Czapnik
    Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
    Author: Magdalena Ozimek-Hanslik
    Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 116-133
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2021.69.07
    PDF: apsp/69/apsp6907.pdf

    Tezą artykułu jest twierdzenie, iż obecna sytuacja kryzysowa w obszarze zdrowia publicznego nie musi oznaczać analogicznego kryzysu w sferze gospodarczej, czyli kapitalizmu neoliberalnego. Zakładamy, że obecna sytuacja, jaką stanowią warunki pandemiczne, współgra z gospodarką kapitalistyczną, wskutek czego system ten jawi się jako stabilny i efektywny jednocześnie. W naszym artykule prezentujemy dialektyczny ogląd ideologicznych aspektów pandemicznej rzeczywistości, który koreluje z twierdzeniem o uspołecznieniu kosztów i prywatyzacji zysków procesów ekonomiczno-politycznych.

  • Wolność zgromadzeń w czasach pandemii. Doświadczenia izraelskie

    Author: Paweł Sadowski
    E-mail: pawel.sadowski@mail.umcs.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9480-643X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 415-426
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.27
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6227.pdf

    Freedom of assembly in times of a pandemic. Israeli experiences

    Freedom of assembly is an essential element in modern democracies, also during emergency situations. The time of the pandemic is an example of the use of various restriction mechanisms of human rights. The Israeli case is worth discussing because as in other democratic states the political internal crises overlap with the pandemic emergency regulations and tensions between parliament and executive branch in law-making.

  • Korzyści i zagrożenia zdalnego nauczania z perspektywy studentów oraz nauczycieli akademickich wybranych krakowskich uczelni

    Author: Agnieszka Potera
    E-mail: agapot@op.pl
    Institution: Independent Researcher
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-00024458-9609
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-23
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.03.01
    PDF: kie/133/kie13301.pdf

    Benefits and risks of remote teaching from a students’ and academic teachers’ prespective of selected Cracow universities

    The epidemiological situation in Poland and in the world was a specific impulse to change education from stationary to remote education, for which it was necessary to use appropriate methods and tools. These circumstances have become a challenge not only for students, but also for academic teachers who try to provide future graduates with the knowledge, competences and skills needed by young people to work in the profession. This publication attempts to discuss the theoretical aspects of remote education based on the available literature. The research conducted and the results obtained on the basis of the respondents’ responses to the proprietary questionnaire, which was carried out using Google Forms from March 10 to April 13, 2021, are described. 115 academic teachers and 229 students participated in the study. The diagnostic survey was an anonymous form of obtaining answers to 12 questions. In the questionnaire, the questionnaire was asked about the tools used for online classes and used to contact the academic teacher - student, student - student relationship. Concentration in classes and communication problems were also investigated. The article also considers the benefits and risks of distance learning at selected Krakow universities from the perspective of academic teachers and students. It was found that the most effective acquisition of knowledge occurs through a combination of distance and stationary teaching. The hybrid mode reduces the level of threats related to e-learning and sums up the benefits of traditional and distance learning.

  • Trauma COVID-19 w polskich metropoliach – przypadek Krakowa

    Author: Piotr Długosz
    E-mail: piotr.dlugosz@up.krakow.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. KEN w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4875-2039
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 24-49
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.03.02
    PDF: kie/133/kie13302.pdf

    The trauma of COVID-19 in Polish metropolises – a case study of Kraków

    The article presents the results of research on the socio-cultural trauma induced by the coronavirus pandemic. The research was conducted on a sample of 650 inhabitants of Kraków. The CAWI survey (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) was used in the research. The pandemic and concurrent phenomena resulted in a decrease in living standard. It is related to all the aspects of daily functioning. The rise of coronavirus and its rapid spreading made people lose their existential security. Their current world became uncertain, which resulted in fear and anxiety among individuals. Anxiety, sadness, exhaustion, boredom and loneliness are present among dominant emotions. The presence of negative emotions indicates that the pandemic strongly influenced the emotional and mental lives of the respondents. As a response to the rising trauma, the inhabitants of Kraków mainly applied active strategies of coping with it. It is worth adding that the traumatic process has just been triggered and along with subsequent negative effects, which reveal themselves in the post-pandemic reality, it will accumulate and have a destructive impact on society.

  • Rozwój kompetencji społecznych studentów w dobie nauczania online

    Author: Agnieszka Franczyk
    E-mail: afranczyk@uni.opole.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Opolski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7240-3018
    Author: Anna Rajchel
    E-mail: a.rajchel@po.edu.pl
    Institution: Politechnika Opolska
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9354-1927
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 148-168
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.03.08
    PDF: kie/133/kie13308.pdf

    Development of students’ social competence in an age of online learning

    The article is the research report. The aim of the investigation was to address the question how students evaluate the development of their social competence regarding learning online which became inevitable due to the COVID19 pandemic. 350 students from three universities in Opole participated in the research. The diagnostic survey method was applied. In order to collect the research material, an original online survey questionnaire was used. The study participants responded to questions on the basis of a fivepoint scale. The analysis of the results indicates that the highest valued competence for the respondents was the ability of selfmanagement in time (M=3.71) along with the ability of expressing one’s own opinion (M=3.66), whereas the lowest valued competence was maintaining relations (M=2.84) and regularity of learning (M=2.87). It also turned out that women valued the development of their social competence significantly higher than men (M=3.44; M=2.94). Considerably higher results also appeared in extramural students compared to fulltime students (M=3.63; M=3.27). Moreover, early years students rated the innovative approach to problemsolving and systematic learning significantly higher than older students.

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