death

  • „Długu żadnego po sobie nie zostawuję” – legaty duchownych małopolskich w testamentach z XVII wieku

    Author: Urszula Kicińska
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 411-422
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ksm201327
    PDF: ksm/18/ksm201327.pdf

    Wills belong to the most valuable sources associated with the Old Polish fu­neral ceremony, from this for making a will all adult inhabitants of the old Republic of Poland were also obliged irrespective of the state, the sex and the function performed in the society (secular or clerical). This document mainly included the regulations concerning the funeral, property records, and also list of the liability and debts of the testator. More­over in the will we can find piece of information about social relations and the attitude of the deceased to family, relatives, friends, neighbors, servants, or also lieges.

    According to the Canon Law clergymen the biggest and also the most valu­able part of personal assets left to their church and the parish which they orde­red. The dying priest also handed the considerable part of belongings over – for one's close family, journeymen and servants. Amongst written objects we can mention – devotional items, furniture, clothes, the underwear, the crockery, everyday articles, the livestock, or also farm tools. Objects mentioned in the will are attesting not only to the affluence of the testator, but also let get to know and understand determinants a daily presence of those people, as well as their emotions and mentality.

  • “In questa casa sono tutti morti”. Di cosa parlano veramente Pinocchio e gli altri grandi libri (non solo italiani) per bambini

    Author: Giorgia Grilli
    E-mail: giorgia.grilli@unibo.it
    Institution: Università di Bologna
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 101-119
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2017.08.06
    PDF: iw/08_1/iw8106.pdf

    “In this House We Are All Dead”. What Pinocchio and Other Children’s Classics (in Italy and Elsewhere) Actually Talk About

    In an attempt to find a possible criterion according to which to select the most representative titles and authors in the history of Italian children’s literature, one finds that a very peculiar theme characterises the books that can be considered most remarkable: death. Death, though, in Italian as well as in all the other children’s classics around the world, is not dealt with in a literal way, but in a metaphorical, symbolic, indirect one. Therefore, it is necessary to borrow interpretative approaches from other scientific fields (anthropology and philosophy, for example) in order to understand death’s deepest meaning and to discover that what it stands for, in Italian (and not only Italian) children’s literature, is an “otherness”, a “beyond”, an unknown and non-anthropocentric dimension that children must go through in order to grow up.

  • Inwentarz Wzorca Śmierci Odwróconej – założenia teoretyczne i właściwości psychometryczne2

    Author: Agnieszka Zamarian
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 133-150
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.01.09
    PDF: kie/115/kie11509.pdf

    The objective of this article is to present the theoretical assumptions and psychometric properties of the Model of Inversed Death Questionnaire. The existential and educational consequences of the new cultural model of death which spreads in modern western civilization justify the need to create the tool to measure the extent to which the model of inversed death is present. Based on studies, involving 341 students from universities in Warsaw, reliability, construct and criterial validity of the tool were tested. It has been shown, that this tool has the correct psychometric properties and can be used in subsequent studies. The multidimensional internal structure of the Model of Inversed Death Questionnaire corresponds to the theoretical model of the studies whereby there is four typical phenomena of the model of inversed death: demetaphysication of death, trivialization of death, taboo of death, separation of death experiences.

  • Śmierć w młodym polskim kinie. Strategie i reprezentacje zabijania

    Author: Magdalena Urbańska
    E-mail: urbanska.magda@wp.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2961-1676
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 97-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.03.07
    PDF: kie/125/kie12507.pdf

    W ostatnich latach filmowcy średniego pokolenia chętnie pokazywali przemoc poprzez jej ujęcie gatunkowe: czy to w thrillerach (filmach o seryjnych zabójcach), czy filmach kryminalnych. Najmłodsze pokolenie filmowe - urodzone w latach osiemdziesiątych - spogląda na ten motyw z zupełnie innej perspektywy. Młodzi twórcy unikają konwencji gatunkowych, przełamując - estetycznie i fabularnie - dotychczas dominujący w rodzimej kinematografii obraz przemocy i stawiając przed nim nowe zadania. W artykule przyglądam się sposobom obrazowania śmierci w najmłodszym kinie, z zaznaczeniem filmowych i społecznych kontekstów oraz analizą ich funkcji. Przedstawiam reprezentacje zabijania w ramach trzech strategii: heroicznej atrakcyjności, arthouse’owej dosadności i generacyjnej diagnozy. Heroiczną atrakcyjność opisuję na przykładzie dwóch filmów o powstaniu warszawskim - Miasto 44 (2014, J. Komasa) oraz Baczyński (2013, K. Piwowarski) - w których estetyzowana śmierć zostaje pokazana jako najwyższy model poświęcenia dla ojczyzny, a jednocześnie pełni rolę atrakcji. Na antypodach takiego obrazu figuruje strategia kina artystycznego, w której zabójstwo ukazane jest jako bezsensowny akt przemocy. Analizy tego motywu, estetycznie wzorowanego na konwencjach zachodniego kina arthouse’owego, dokonuję na przykładzie Placu zabaw (2016, B.M. Kowalski) i Hardkor disko (2014, K. Skonieczny). Za pośrednictwem trzeciego sposobu pokazywania zabijania - występującego w: Obietnicy (2014, A. Kazejak), Reakcji łańcuchowej (2017, J. Pączek) i Bejbi Blues (2012, K. Rosłaniec) - twórcy próbują rysować obyczajowy i psychologiczny portret danej generacji. W artykule szczegółowo analizuję powyższe strategie ukazywania śmierci i reprezentacje obrazów przemocy w najnowszej kinematografii, aby ukazać je jako odmienne na tle dotychczasowych tradycji kina polskiego.

  • ¿El canto a San Francisco o las exequias de Sebastián Ramírez de Fuenleal? Una aproximación al llamado Pipilcuicatl o “Canto de niños” del manuscrito de Cantares mexicanos

    Author: Katarzyna Szoblik
    Institution: Universidad de Varsovia
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 19-67
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal201901
    PDF: sal/9/sal901.pdf

    A song in honor of San Francisco or a funerary song for Sebastian Ramirez de Fuenleal? An interpretation of the so called Pipilcuicatl, “The Children’s Song”, registered in the manuscript of Cantares mexicanos

    The article presents a critical interpretation of one of the songs collected in the 16th-century manuscript known as Cantares mexicanos. “The Children’s Song”, in Nahuatl Pipilcuicatl, is one of the few pieces of this manuscript provided with clear information on the context of its performance, which apparently should facilitate its correct interpretation. However, as the present analysis shows, the song in question is in fact a result of various reelaborations of the more ancient models. It is an overlap of diff erent semantic levels corresponding to diverse ideologies, objectives, events and socio-politic contexts, such as: the ancient indigenous rituals, funerary celebrations, Medieval and Renaissance Christian popular beliefs and aesthetics, as well as the contemporary Colonial aesthetics of the New Spain. The objective of this article is to indicate the possible meanings that might have been attributed to diff erent elements of this song by the Spaniards and the indigenous participants of the celebration.

  • Argentinos, bestias, chaqwa y pishtacos. La experiencia del terror, la crueldad y la muerte en la conciencia colectiva de los serranos en el periodo del confl icto interno en el Perú

    Author: Joanna Pietraszczyk-Sękowska
    Institution: Universidad de Łódź
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 127-162
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal201904
    PDF: sal/9/sal904.pdf

    Argentinos, bestias, chaqwa y pishtacos. The experience of terror, cruelty and death in the collective consciousness of Andean villagers during the internal conflict in Peru

    The problem of internal conflict in Peru is a popular research topic that has been analyzed from various scientific perspectives by both domestic and foreign researchers for almost four decades. In addition to the dominant historical and political approaches (mainly focused on structural features of war and its impact on the current shape of the state and society) as well as the anthropological ones (primarily devoted to socio-cultural sources and following reveals of the problem), a significant place is also occupied by the studies of violence, taken up by various disciplines. Application of this perspective is, however, an exceptionally complex task, since, as in the lens, it concentrates systems of links between phenomena and actors, whose figures cannot be clearly outlined. It is particularly evident in relation to forms, scale and perception of terror in the Andes. The article aims at looking for the answer to the question what was going to be the role of the title “terror, cruelty and death” in the military activities in the Peruvian province and how they ultimately influenced collective consciousness of Andean villagers and their attitudes in conflict. Therefore, the analysis concerns, first of all, forms and goals of violence in the Andes and the ways in which serranos visualized them, and then, reactions of the latter to the war experience of dehumanization, death and destruction.

  • Narconovela colombiana: narrativa de corte thanático

    Author: Adriana Sara Jastrzębska
    Institution: Universidad de Bielsko-Biała
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 193-210
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal201907
    PDF: sal/9/sal907.pdf

    Colombian narco novel: a Thanatotic narrative

    This article comprises an inventory of the motif of death within the narrative syntax of several Colombian narco novels. “Sicaresca” novels by Fernando Vallejo, Jorge Franco and Arturo Alape will be discussed. The construct of the characters, young contract killers, whose violent and premature deaths are seen as their fate, will be shown to display an indisputably “Thanatotic” facet. In the second part of this article, the ritual dimension of death, presented in the novels “Comandante Paraíso” by Gustavo Álvarez Gardeazábal and “Leopardo al sol” by Laura Restrepo, will be analysed. The last part will be dedicated to the iconic and symbolic dimension of Pablo Escobar’s death depicted in “El ruido de las cosas al caer” by Juan Gabriel Vásquez and “Happy birthday, capo” by José Libardo Porras.

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