• The National security of France in White Papers on Defense. Continuity or change?

    Author: Karolina J. Helnarska
    Institution: University of Warsaw (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 268-278
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013017.pdf

    France after World War II was in a difficult situation. This involved a loss of position, not only as a superpower in the world but in Europe. Superpower, the global position of France, decided to rebuild, after the new president was elected in June 1959, Gen. Ch. de Gaulle. According to his conception of a foreign policy for France it should have a global dimension, supported by the independent French defense not only as a conventional but also nuclear power. Gen. Ch. De Gaulle took the position that France having regard to its independence in the political, military, economic and cultural center should not submit to any of the blocks. Independence in the foreign policy of France was understood as the freedom to determine their own place in the world, freely determine their fate, the defense of vital national interests and full freedom in the choice of ends, means and methods of foreign policy.

  • Space Defense in Europe. Policy and Security Aspects

    Author: Małgorzata Polkowska
    Institution: War Studies University
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 127-139
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/49-2/ppsy2020207.pdf

    Today countries participating in space activities, share serious concerns about militarization of space. The defense of space can become an important issue in the international arena, because counteracting emerging threats will probably be associated not only with the development of technology and operational capabilities, but also with the creation of political alliances or attempts at international agreement on certain “rules of the game” for space operations. Ultimately, the growing importance of “space for defense” creates the need for “defense of space”. Individual countries remain the main actors in the field of space defense. Military strategies are defined at national level, and the development and exploitation of military space assets are managed by national organizations. Today, most European countries recognize space as a strategic area, next to land, sea, air and, increasingly, cyberspace, but they have adopted different policies and doctrines depending on their sensitivity, priorities and concerns. European space forces also have different governance structures with significant differences in the distribution of roles and responsibilities, including space agencies and private entities.

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