democracy

  • Liberty in Equality: Lord Acton’s Teaching on Participatory Democracy

    Author: Krzysztof Łazarski
    Institution: Lazarski University in Warsaw
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-21
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2019.63.01
    PDF: apsp/63/apsp6301.pdf

    The historian of liberty Lord Acton is not ordinarily viewed as a supporter of equality and democracy. There is a strong evidence, however, that his best practical regime is a participatory democracy, his constant philippics against equality and democracy notwithstanding. He always stressed that political power originates in the people and that mature liberty implies equality and universal franchise, even if in certain circumstances freedom can exist without them. Further, Acton is also the author of an original idea how to build participatory democracy without resorting to social engineering. He maintained that political freedom and citizenship begin with self-rule on a local level. If local communities create higher levels of authority, starting from a village and county and ending with the national government, we then deal with a grassroots democracy, in which citizens (not elites) run the country.

  • Education and Political Subjectivity. A Study Report

    Author: Joanna Marszałek-Kawa
    E-mail: kawadj@box43.pl
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Author: Danuta Plecka
    E-mail: danakar1@wp.pl
    Institution: University of Zielona Góra
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8504-279X
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 17-26
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.19.57.3.01
    PDF: tner/201903/tner5701.pdf

    It is obvious that the educational system shapes the skill of critical thinking, also in the sphere of the assessment of political phenomena. The educational background of a person determines the kind of decisions he or she makes. These decisions refer to political activity both defined as interest in political issues and manifested in the form of active political participation. The aim of this paper is to identify relations between holding a university degree and political subjectivity. The study, conducted with the use of a survey questionnaire, involved students from the University of Zielona Góra and from the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń.

  • My Thoughts on Future Political Needs and Difficulties

    Author: Konrad Gizbert-Studnicki
    Institution: University in Ottawa
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 35-53
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201902
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201902.pdf

    When I was a young father, my children believed that my sayings were a true wisdom worthy repetition; today things have changed - it was my turn is to repeat wisdom of my children, believing that they usually are right. A few months ago, my son, Daviken, said that those who were writing frequently cannot easily survive without writing. Daviken was right. I loved to write, especially when something I wrote and which was contrary to what people believe was correct. I believe I inherited the dislike to generally accepted truth from my father, who was described by a Polish weekly that he was “the man who always goes against the general flow”. My father thought that this was an excellent statement of his character. He loved saying: “I am indeed a man who will think and act against prevailing flow, because only shit floats always with main current, and people who try to float in the main flow are those who repeat, without understanding, everything what they had heard”.

  • Ogólnokrajowe referendum inicjowane przez obywateli a polskie prawo referendalne

    Author: Grzegorz Kryszeń
    E-mail: kryszen@edu.uwb.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet w Białymstoku
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7556-2716
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 425-441
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.04.23
    PDF: ppk/56/ppk5623.pdf

    Citizen Initiated Referendum and Polish Referendum Law

    The main aim of this study is to respond to the call to give citizens the power to initiate a referendum in a binding way. The key question in this context is whether such a postulate should not be treated as just a typical manifestation of political populism and thus rejected, or whether it should be supported by recognizing the institution of a referendum initiated by the citizens as a factor conducive to a more complete implementation of the idea of democratic rule, without threatening the destabilization and dysfunctionality of the political system. The analysis carried out in the article proves that this institution cannot be discredited because it should be seen as a necessary element of the process of exercising power in a democratic state. The proposed legal regulation may be conducive to achieving such a role in Polish political practice.

  • Kryteria zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw człowieka Rady Europy. Rozważania na kanwie wyroku ETPC Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi

    Author: Marcin Jastrzębski
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 57-73
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.65.04
    PDF: apsp/65/apsp6504.pdf

    Niniejszy artykuł zawiera szeroką analizę problemu kryteriów zgłaszania kandydatów w wyborach w systemie ochrony praw Rady Europy ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wyroku Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka w sprawie Tahirov przeciwko Azerbejdżanowi. Podstawowe badania obejmą przede wszystkim orzecznictwo organów międzynarodowych chroniących prawa jednostki, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Europejskiego Trybunału i Komisji Praw Człowieka Rady Europy, oraz raporty misji obserwujących wybory OBWE.

  • (Nie)spójność wizerunku Indonezji : strategiczna narracja i działania w polityce zagranicznej

    Author: Anna Grzywacz
    Institution: Akademia Finansów i Biznesu Vistula
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 89-102
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.65.06
    PDF: apsp/65/apsp6506.pdf

    Wzrost znaczenia Indonezji w regionie Azji i Pacyfiku jest zauważalny przynajmniej od 2004 r. Promowanie demokracji przez Indonezję uznaje się za jedną z ważniejszych ról, jakie ona odgrywa, zaś „demokratyczny zwrot” w polityce zagranicznej tego państwa jest szeroko analizowany. Celem tego artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na kolejny aspekt związany z tymi badaniami – spójności wizerunku promotora demokracji z działaniami w polityce zagranicznej z perspektywy strategicznej narracji. Pytanie badawcze brzmi: czy wizerunek Indonezji jako promotora demokracji jest spójny? W artykule weryfikowana jest hipoteza stanowiącą, że Indonezja nie tworzy spójnego wizerunku państwa promującego demokrację, choć z pewnymi wyjątkami.

  • Roman Rybarski o ustroju politycznym w latach 1918-1926

    Author: Jan Waskan
    Institution: Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9321-9196
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 76-88
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip201906
    PDF: cip/17/cip1706.pdf

    Roman Franciszek Rybarski (1887-1942) należał do wybitnych teoretyków i działaczy Narodowej Demokracji. Pozostawił szereg prac z zakresu ekonomii, prawa i polityki. Wśród tych ostatnich szczególne miejsce zajmują Naród, jednostka i klasa oraz Siła i prawo. Był prezesem Klubu Narodowego w Sejmie w latach 1928-1935 oraz przywódcą frakcji liberalnej zwanej grupą „starych” lub „profesorską” w Stronnictwie Narodowym. W artykule przedstawiono jego poglądy dotyczące problematyki ustrojowej. W pierwszym okresie istnienia niepodległej Rzeczypospolitej do 1922 r. Rybarski zdecydowanie opowiada się za ustrojem demokracji parlamentarnej i ideą państwa narodowego. Wybory 1922 r. i porażka w Zgromadzeniu Narodowym przy wyborze prezydenta Gabriela Narutowicza oraz tragiczne skutki jego śmierci powodują, że Rybarski, jak i inni działacze endeccy, dostrzegają że do niedawna tak bliski im parlamentaryzm staje się zgubny dla Polski. Rozpoczyna się jego krytyka, Rybarski podkreślał, że konstytucja doprowadza do krańcowości i absurdu zasadę rządów parlamentarnych. Niezadowolenie przeniosło się na wszystkie klasy i warstwy. Domagano się zmian, które stawały się koniecznością chwili.

  • Campaigns and Electioneering: Reflecting on the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria

    Author: Emmanuel Osewe Akubor
    E-mail: oseweakubor@gmail.com
    Institution: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 72-86
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2020405
    PDF: ppsy/49-4/ppsy2020405.pdf

    Historically, campaigns are recognized as a vital part of electioneering since it contains the ideas that the candidate wants to share with the voters, especially regarding policy issues and the administration’s focus. It aims to get those who agree with their ideas to support them when running for a political position. The message often consists of several talking points about policy issues. However, a study of Nigeria’s situation, with specific reference to the 2015 Campaigns and Electioneering, revealed that the main content of campaigns was hate speeches. Therefore, this paper seeks to bring out the main issues of campaigns in Nigeria’s electoral system and why it has often led to electoral violence over the years. The qualitative method is used for this particular research. Data obtained from primary and secondary sources were deployed to carry out the study with an analytical and narrative historical approach. It includes historical, descriptive, and analytical approaches based on gathered evidence. This research’s primary source is based on field investigations conducted in the Nigerian area and surrounding territories. Among other things, the data collection process includes semi-structured interviews with selected individuals. The research also uses historical documents from the national archives, relying on previous research conducted on society, administrative development, and documentary data taken from newspaper accounts, diaries, letters, and verbal reports. This research’s position is that campaigns over the years in Nigeria, unlike what is obtainable in some parts of the world where policy issues form the backbone of campaign message have basically on persons, character assassination, violence, and abusive (hate) speeches. The paper argues that this campaign strategy often leads to electoral violence before, during, and after elections. The paper, therefore, concludes that only issue-based campaigns can guarantee peaceful and credible elections in Nigeria.

  • Elections in Hybrid Regimes

    Author: Ryszard Balicki
    E-mail: ryszard.balicki@uwr.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Wrocław
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9192-908X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-166
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.12
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5812.pdf

    Elections are nowadays treated as a symbol of a democratic order. However, this view is not true. The institution of elections also occurs in states that are far from being a democracy. However, their course and functions significantly differ from the elections carried out in democratic countries. As it has been shown in the article, the analysis of the title issue becomes particularly important due to the growing group of countries referred to as hybrid regimes.

  • The Proposal to Create the European Union Mechanism to Monitor Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights, and the Council of Europe Reaction

    Author: Kamil Spryszak
    E-mail: k.spryszak@onet.pl
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3318-3742
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 475-486
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.38
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5838.pdf

    The rule of law is one of the founding values of the EU, as indicated in Art. 2 TEU. This provision recognizes that the rule of law is a core value, inherent to liberal democracy, and one which characterized the Union and its Member States. Taking into account this context, as well as the deficiencies of the EU mechanism to enforce the rule of law within the Member States, European Parliament called on the Commission to establish a new tool to address rule of law backsliding in Member States. In October 2016, Parliament addressed recommendations to the Commission on the establishment of EU mechanism on democracy, the rule of law, and fundamental rights (EU pact for DRF) in the form of an international agreement. The new mechanism should integrate and complement the existing mechanism, should be evidence-based, objective, addressing the Member States and EU. The author analyzes this initiative and tries to answer why it was not fully realized. Additionally, he presents a reaction to that initiative of the Council of Europe. There is no doubt, that realization of the EU Pact for DRF would inf luence the Council of Europe and weaken its role as a main European mechanism in the area of protection of democracy, rule of law, and human rights.

  • Status and Role of the Young Generation in the Social and Political Space of Georgia

    Author: Katarzyna Skiert-Andrzejuk
    E-mail: katarzyna.skiert@gmail.com
    Institution: Collegium Civitas
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4451-5092
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 22-42
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/npw20212802
    PDF: npw/28/npw2802.pdf

    Status and Role of the Young Generation in the Social and Political Space of Georgia

    The aim of the paper is to examine the status and role of the young generation in the social and political space of Georgia. The paper states that the young generation of Georgians does not enjoy high social status, even though the young can and probably will constitute the future elite of Georgian society. To analyze this research problem, I have used a number of research methods based partly on secondary sources. Three main research methods have been used in the study-desk research method, comparison, and the statistical method based on secondary data that have been extracted from the Caucasus Research Resource Center (CRRC) database. The paper is a snapshot of studies on the theory of notions of “status” and “role”, and it presents the work of Polish scholars. Moreover, the paper opens the door to further research on the young and democracy in Georgia. The studied issue is essential for analyzing the perception of democracy and democratization among the generations in Georgia. The paper is part of a series of articles on the opinion of the young generation of Georgians about democracy and democratization.

  • Right-wing and left-wing populist parties as a threat to modern liberal democracies

    Author: Maksym Burdiuh
    E-mail: maksymburdiuh@gmail.com
    Institution: National University of Kyiv
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0017-3588
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-21
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021101
    PDF: rop/15/rop1501.pdf

    The article analyses modern populism as a challenge to liberal democracy in terms of the activities of right-wing and left-wing political parties. An important factor in the growth of populism is the lack of effectiveness of constitutionalism and other formal limited institutions, procedures to ensure the principles of people’s sovereignty, democracy, justice, guarantee the interests of the majority in the modern world. It is noted that populism emerged in the late 19th century as a social movement, ideology, and political activity, and since then has firmly taken its place in the political consciousness of the masses, gaining new features and intensifying at times when countries are experiencing turning points in their history. The main factors in the growth of populism include the insufficient effectiveness of the institutions of indirect democracy in modern consolidated democracies. Another reason for the rise of populism is related to the tendency of ideological deradicalization, which manifested itself in the activities of different parties. Today, populism does not have a developed fundamental theoretical background and conceptual texts like nationalism and conservatism. However, it has a holistic structure as a political phenomenon and a set of ideological positions. The goal of modern populism is the introduction of “illiberal democracy” – a government that ensures smooth transformation of people’s preferences into public policy (unlike liberal democracies, which are almost always hindered by certain obstacles to responding effectively to pressing problems). From this point of view, populism is not a threat to democracy as such, but the leading liberal version of democracy. The possibilities of constitutionalism are treated with scepticism in the populist ideology, as formal, limited institutions and procedures prevent the majority from executing their will. Liberal democracy is not strong enough and constantly needs strengthening elements in response to new challenges and threats. But liberal democracy, more than any other political form, contains the potential for development, a synergistic resource, and the power of self-correction. A strong parliament and a developed civil society remain effective counterweight to populism.

  • Jury in Civil Procedure in the Context of Judicial Reform in Ukraine

    Author: Raisa Minchenko
    E-mail: raisa.m.2014@gmail.com
    Institution: Chairman of the NGO «Legal Dimension»
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0926-2341
    Author: Daria Minchenko
    E-mail: raisa.m.2014@gmail.com
    Institution: Attorney, Chairman of the NGO «Legal Dimension»
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0926-2341
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 84-96
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ksm20210206
    PDF: ksm/30/ksm3006.pdf

    The scientific article is devoted to the definition of directions of improvement of the jury trial in civil proceedings of Ukraine. It unveils the historical origins of formation of the jury trial as one of the important democratic institutions, which provides the possibility of direct participation of people in the administration of justice and is a civilized means of protecting civil society from judicial arbitrariness and corruption in the judiciary. Two models of jury trial are described: the Anglo-Saxon and the continental. The existing scientific controversy on the expediency of the functioning of the jury in civil proceedings and the effectiveness of some, including complex, civil cases with the participation of the jury are described. It is argued that the reasons for the inefficiency of the jury trial in Ukraine are the non-transparent system of forming the jury lists, the lack of state funding for the jury trial, public misunderstanding of the benefits of the jury trial, and thus the non-acceptance of the jury by the vast majority of citizens and their evasion of the duties of jurors. It is concluded that it is inexpedient to preserve the jury trial in civil proceedings in its current form, as this will only harm the tasks of civil proceedings. The authors propose the ways to improve the model of the jury trial in civil proceedings in Ukraine, in particular, by building a transparent system for forming a list of jurors as a result of outreach work among the population and decent pay for jurors.

  • African Great Lakes Region: Governance and Politics

    Published online: 21 June 2021
    Final submission: 7 July 2020
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Wioleta Gierszewska
    E-mail: wioleta.gierszewska@ug.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5024-9379
    Author: Benjamin Mudaheranwa
    E-mail: benothmar@gmail.com
    Institution: Christian University of Rwanda (Rwanda)
    Source: Show
    Page no: 10
    Pages: 109-118
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202115
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202115.pdf

    This article aims to indicate the sources of problems in the field of governance and politics in the African Great Lakes Region. The countries of this region play an essential role in the global socio-political and economic system. Their development is hampered by numerous external and internal conflicts resulting from both the historical and contemporary problems of the countries. Colonialism had a major impact on the development of African countries. It manifested itself, among other things, in the spread of political domination. Adopting state management patterns from European culture and attempt to transplant them on African ground without understanding local cultural conditions contributed too much post-colonial fresh and modern conflict. Examples of this are failures to establish liberal democracy and its crises in the African Great Lakes Region.

  • The Role of Islam in Indonesian Foreign Policy: A Case of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Introduction

    Published online: 21 June 2021
    Final submission: 8 June 2021
    Printed issue: December 2021
    Author: Aisyah Mumary Songbatumis
    E-mail: mumarysongbatumis@gmail.com
    Institution: Vistula University (Poland)
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4144-2484
    Source: Show
    Page no: 23
    Pages: 89-111
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy202119
    PDF: ppsy/50/ppsy202119.pdf

    As Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono won the 2004 presidential election, it marked the end of Indonesia’s democratic transition era and experienced a dynamic change in foreign policy. The new international identity that viewed Islam as an asset was introduced by SBY, emphasizing the importance of moderate Islam as opposing extremism. The phenomenon of Islamic influence was not only the result of democratic consolidation domestically but also external factors such as the aftermath of 9/11 that portrayed Muslims as potential terrorists. For this reason, Indonesian foreign policy attempted to diminish such misconceptions and tried to be a peacemaker or a mediator in Muslim-related issues globally. To contextualize the analysis, the study focuses on the influence of Islam in Indonesian foreign policy towards the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and Pakistan. The mutual aspirations on the Palestinian statehood shared by both the government and the Muslim elements in society could be found, while religious sentiments were noticeable, as shown by the Muslim groups. In contrast, the influence of Islam in Indonesia-Pakistan relations, especially regarding the Kashmir dispute, was absent due to the difference in views of the government and the Muslim groups and constraining factors, including Indonesia’s national interest priority.

  • Perception of Democracy in the Turkish Political Culture

    Author: Sabriye Beste Kabaçam
    E-mail: bestekabacam@hotmail.com
    Institution: Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7846-1718
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 230-242
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/siip202011
    PDF: siip/19/siip1911.pdf

    The subject of this article is political culture and its relationship with democracy. The article is focused mainly on Turkish political culture and democratic practices. It is clear that the political system is directly connected with the political culture of society. But how could we distinguish political culture from other things or do we even have to? The purpose of this article is to present and evaluate the main role of political culture, which affects levels of tolerance, interpersonal trust, etc., as well as the adaption of democratic institutions to the current system. The main problems of Turkish political life are discussed in the article with the perspective of the relationship between political culture and democracy. The aim of this article is to present concepts of cultural orientations, the reflection of economic and political factors, social structures, as well as complex and unclear relations between them, which are simultaneously linked to a stable democracy. Therefore, it can be observed that stable democracy is not a coincidence but a result of all mentioned factors.

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