• Afghanistan’s Media Developments and Challenges in the Past Two Decades: A Short Glance at Media Freedom

    Author: Masom Jan Masomy
    Institution: Afghanistan Academy of Sciences
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 64-77
    DOI Address:
    PDF: rop/19/rop1904.pdf

    Media, during Taliban five years period from 1996-2001, had been totally suffocated. Only limited number of print media would publish to spread the propaganda of Taliban Emirate under Sharia Law. Post-Taliban era, media landscape obtained new image with the establishment of democratic government. Independent media were allowed to operate in accordance with the formation of new constitution of 2004. Afghanistan to rise and promote the voice of right, equality and justice, defend human rights and spread public awareness in order to serve for social responsibilities. Despite continued challenges media outlets and journalists have made tremendous progress which it has resulted in harm of their personal life from time to time due to threats of insecurity, war, warlords, strongmen, corrupted actors in government as well as in attacks of Taliban and ISIS insurgents. Hence, media outlets and journalists have been carrying on their responsibilities despite of availed risks to them and their families. In this paper, it has been viewed the status of media freedom, process of development and continued challenges to media freedom and journalists.

  • Reforma konstytucyjna w Kirgistanie. Wyzwania i zagrożenia dla demokracji i państwa prawa

    Author: Oleksandr Veretilnyk
    Institution: Uniwersytet Szczeciński
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 185-199
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/65/ppk6514.pdf

    Constitutional Reform in Kyrgyzstan. Challenges and Threats to Democracy and the Rule of Law

    The collapse of the USSR in 1991 led to the emergence of five independent states in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. Four of them established an authoritarian form of government, while Kyrgyzstan became the only democratic state in the region. This may change after the referendum on constitutional reform, which is scheduled for 2021. The amendments to the Constitution provide for the extension of the president’s powers, which, according to many Kyrgyz researchers, may lead to the transformation of Kyrgyzstan into an authoritarian state. This article presents the results of the analysis of the draft amendment to the Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic initiated by the new president of the country, Sadyr Japarov.

  • Polish Feminist Movement after 1989: Achievements, Challenges and Open Questions

    Author: Natalia Krzyżanowska
    Institution: Örebro University
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 39-62
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/108/kie10803.pdf

    My paper aims to sketch the current condition as well as main challenges of the Polish feminist movement after 1989. It focuses on how gender and women’s issues are approached and conceptualised in Poland today. The paper is enriched by a short outline of history of Polish women struggle for equal rights in especially political and economic dimensions. Importance of commemoration and acknowledgment of history of Polish women struggle is seen as crucial to post-1989 Polish reality in which terms such as democracy, freedom, equality, justice had to be re-invented/re-defined.

  • Wyzwania pandemiczne a przemiany w prawie i praktyce ustrojowej wybranych państw europejskich

    Author: Jakub Robel
    Institution: Społeczna Akademia Nauk w Warszawie
    Year of publication: 2022
    Source: Show
    Pages: 65-76
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/66/ppk6605.pdf

    Pandemic Challenges Versus Changes in the Law and System Practice Selected European Countries

    The article presents the changes that have taken place in the laws and systemic practice of states as a result of counteracting the crisis related to the Covid-19 pandemic. The author, pointing to pandemic challenges as well as actions taken by governments of states belonging to the Council of Europe, pointed out that the peculiar bluntness of changes could be most noticed in the construction and implementation of regulations on states of emergency. On the other hand, the issue of modifying the constitution was approached more carefully.

  • Obywatel w demokratycznym państwie prawa. Ewolucja statusu jednostki z równością w tle

    Author: Arleta Hrehorowicz
    Institution: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 120-133
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/104/kie10409.pdf

    This text is an attempt to subjectively consider of the issue of equality, on the topic of which Ryszard Borowicz in 1988 wrote a monograph entitled “Równość i sprawiedliwość społeczna” [Equality and Social Justice]. The author, referring to a historical and legal overview of the notion of the citizen, tries to suggest that it is the political system that determines the status of its citizens. What is more, it also determines not only their legal situation but also the scope of their subjective rights, freedoms and obligations. The general principles enshrined in the constitution are the means that the legislator uses to show the citizens which values he considers the most important and which are intended to guide social change. The main goal of the authors’ deliberations is to signal the need to continue research on equality, especially given that the notion of equality should be considered from a wider perspective, for example taking into account the change of the political and legal system.

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