• Discrimination, Democracy, and Postmodern Human Rights

    Author: Bartosz Wypych
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 163-184
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2013011
    PDF: ppsy/42/ppsy2013011.pdf

    The question of discrimination, as far as it is considered in the field of philosophy, cannot be perceived as a problem which can be effectively combated. Even the most precise diagnosis of human nature will not restrain people from defining others as evil and inferior. The most universal and spacious conventions, declarations, cards or bills will not solve the problem either. They can be regarded as an example of applied philosophy at most. On the other hand, we should pose the question what the world would look like if political pragmatism were the main obligatory rule. Thus, the situation finds us between philosophical wishful thinking about a global order free from discrimination and macro – or micropolitical pragmatism.

  • Argumentation of the Court of Strasbourg’s Jurisprudence regarding the discrimination against Roma

    Author: Cristina Hermida del Llano
    Institution: Rey Juan Carlos University, Spain
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 11-38
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2015.06.01
    PDF: ppk/28/ppk2801.pdf

    While the Court has, to some degree, started to protect against discrimination based on birth or nationality, the protection against discrimination on the basis of race until 2005 has been very poor and dubious. Upon reviewing the case law of the ECHR, we find that since the case “Relating to certain aspects of the laws on the use of language in education in Belgium” v. Belgium in 1968, the Court has decided to opt in favor of the original English version of art. 14, which underscores that the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms must be assured “without discrimination” and defends the concept that equality should be interpreted as non-discrimination, while clarifying that this disposition does not prohibit preferential treatment, such that, in the eyes of the Court, this principle is only violated when preferential treatment implies “a discriminatory treatment”, so the task for us is to determine in detail when the two are correlated. The cited decision is an essential reference as it provides the pointers needed to discern whether or not a violation of art. 14 exists, as in a “test” of equality that entails: (1) whether the distinction in treatment lacks objective justification; (2) whether the difference in treatment results in conformity with the objective of the effects of the measure examined attendant to the principles that generally prevail in democratic societies; (3) whether there exists a reasonable relationship between the means used and the end sought. Despite this interpretational recognition of art. 14, if we analyze in detail the Court’s jurisprudence, how the Court has approached the topic of discrimination on the basis of racial or ethnic origin is somewhat disappointing. The fact that during decades plaintiffs were required to provide proof beyond the shadow of a doubt has restricted the Court’s influence on discriminatory actions based on race or ethnicity; for this reason, it is not unexpected that in time critical dissidence arose, even within the Court itself. A good example of this is given by Judge Bonello in the decision Anguelova vs Bulgaria (2002). Here we analyze how the jurisprudence of the Court of Strasbourg has evolved in the context of discrimination against Roma, so as to ascertain the challenges that remain in this area.

  • Electoral Rights and Intellectual Disability: Considerations de lege lata

    Author: Małgorzata Babula
    Institution: WSPiA University in Rzeszów
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 642-651
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018404
    PDF: ppsy/47-4/ppsy2018404.pdf

    The Constitution of the Republic of Poland mentions as one of the principles of electoral law its universality. This means that anyone who meets the requirements of law is entitled to vote. The admissibility of exclusions from this principle is also expressly defined by the law. One of the limitations in the exercise of electoral rights is an intellectual disability resulting in the incapacity of the individual. Meanwhile, Poland’s international obligations resulting e.g. from the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities provides with a necessity of a deeper reflection on the present solutions. The ratification by Poland of the UN Convention has stimulated discussion on the political rights of people with intellectual disabilities, extending the field of debate on the legitimacy of the current form of institution of incapacitation. The aim of this article is to reflect on the current solutions in the exercise of electoral rights by people affected by intellectual disability but not being incapacitated.

  • Discrimination in the discourse of polish textbooks dedicated to civic education courses

    Author: Magdalena Cuprjak
    Author: Violetta Kopińska
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 38-47
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2015.40.2.03
    PDF: tner/201502/tner20150203.pdf

    The study presents a critical analysis of visual materials contained in civic education textbooks with the purpose to identify traits of discrimination of individuals with a “skin colour” other than “white”. The undertaken quantitative and qualitative analyses allowed for drawing a conclusion that the depiction of persons in the researched visual material did in fact bear certain traits of discrimination. Moreover, it was concluded that what may be observed is compound discrimination. The studies presented in the article were conducted within a larger-scale project entitled Gender in textbooks.

  • (Nie)równe traktowanie dzieci powracających w polskiej szkole

    Author: Paulina Szydłowska
    Author: Joanna Durlik
    Author: Joanna Grzymała-Moszczyńska
    Author: Halina Grzymała-Moszczyńska
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 201-224
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2017.02.13
    PDF: em/7/em713.pdf

    Celem badań, które zostały przeprowadzone w ramach projektu (Nie)łatwe powroty do domu. Badanie funkcjonowania dzieci i młodzieży powracających z emigracji, było zdiagnozowanie sytuacji dzieci i młodzieży powracających do Polski i opisanie jej z różnych perspektyw: dziecka, rodzica, nauczyciela/ki, a także osób pracujących w poradniach psychologiczno-pedagogicznych. W badaniach wzięło udział 34 dzieci, 27 rodziców oraz 26 nauczycieli. Z respondentami i respondentkami przeprowadzono częściowo pogłębione wywiady, a z pracownikami Poradni Psychologiczno-Pedagogicznych wywiady focusowe oraz badanie ankietowe.Wyniki badań wskazują na występowanie dyskryminacji w stosunku do dzieci powracających w polskich szkołach. Przybiera ona różne formy: od nieuwzględniania przez szkołę ich specjalnych potrzeb edukacyjnych, przez etykietowanie, po przemoc słowną albo fizyczną ze strony rówieśników. Badania pokazują również, że często kadra szkolna nie tylko nie reaguje adekwatnie na przemoc stosowaną względem tej grupy dzieci, ale sama dopuszcza sie takiej przemocy w sposób nieświadomy. Sytuacja ta może wynikać zarówno z braku przygotowania nauczycieli do pracy z dzieckiem z doświadczeniem migracyjnym w ramach studiów, a także z braku dostępu do szkoleń na temat edukacji antydyskryminacyjnej.

  • Iluzoryczność procesu inkluzji społecznej

    Author: Grażyna Dryżałowska
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 91-107
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2019.01.06
    PDF: kie/123/kie12306.pdf

    Contrary to the huge involvement of various social groups, implementation of numerous aid programmes, social exclusion, discrimination, marginalisation are still present in various social groups all over the world, and various strategies of social inclusion, including administrative and legal tools for its practical implementation, prove to be ineffective. The aim of this article is to indicate mutual dependencies and conditions as well as social contexts determining the illusory nature of inclusion activities undertaken, first of all, in relation to people with disabilities, but also people excluded from reasons other than disability.

  • Universal and Equal Right to Access to Education for People with Disabilities in the Light of Polish and International Law

    Author: Anna Pięta-Szawara
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7237-295X
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 355-365
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.29
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5829.pdf

    The right to education for persons with disabilities results from the constitutional principle of universal and equal access to education, however, it frequently encounters difficulties in implementation. This issue is particularly important not only from the point of view of Polish law but also due to international guarantees of universal access to education and activities aimed at the elimination of all forms of discrimination. They were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Convention on Human Rights. European standards in this respect are set, first of all, by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, EU regulations and directives, as well as by the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Moreover, the issue of the universal and equal right to education was also raised in the documents of the Council of Europe: the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Social Charter, judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, and decisions of the European Committee of Social Rights.

  • Gender equality in social and labor relations

    Author: Valentyna Kolesnyk
    Institution: Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1994-9537
    Author: Galyna Tatarenko
    Institution: Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6291-4455
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-56
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021103
    PDF: rop/15/rop1504.pdf

    While reforming of the Ukrainian state, an important part of ensuring the social process is gender issues, providing equal opportunities for self-realization of a person regardless of gender, age, nationality or social origin. In accordance with the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the world community in 2000, one of the priorities of international development and indicators of social and economic development is ensuring gender equality. The implementation of gender equality ideas contributes to the effective use of human potential and, consequently, to the expansion of human development opportunities. Studying the processes of creation and implementation of gender policy in public administration is one of the new areas of research at the current stage of state formation. Its relevance is due to the processes of democratization of the Ukrainian society and search for ways to increase the effectiveness of public policy concerning equal rights and opportunities for women and men. Nowadays it is paid considerable attention to gender equality aspects by many international organizations. Thus, the United Nations (UN) has developed a number of global Sustainable Development Goals (CDGs) for 2015-2030, which were approved in 2015 at the UN Summit on Sustainable Development and which now all countries are committed to. The fifth of the seventeen CDGs is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. In 2017, the Government of Ukraine presented the “Sustainable Development Goals: Ukraine” national report, which addresses gender equality as an essential task. It is emphasized that in Ukraine it is necessary to create conditions for elimination of all women discrimination forms. In this regard the relevant objectives and basic indicators for their achievement have been identified. Despite the fact that the world pays more and more attention to research in the field of gender equality, in Ukraine this issue remains one of the marginal segments in the public administration science. Therefore a systematic study of the formation of a gender-balanced staff at local executive bodies is becoming important. It is the management staff of local executive bodies that is sharply criticized; its mistakes and misjudgments significantly affect the standard of living, the welfare of citizens of a particular administrative-territorial unit, and the image and authority of government and the state as a whole. In the article it is analyzed the principles and mechanisms of state gender policy in Ukraine in the social and labor area, in particular in the civil service, it is studied the latest changes in the legal framework on gender issues, and it is described the existing legal issues that slow the further development of gender integration in all spheres of public administration, it is developed proposals to improve gender policy legal framework at the current stage.

  • Społeczno-kulturowe mechanizmy funkcjonowania osoby transpłciowej

    Author: Karolina Czerwiec
    Institution: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3774-6901
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 344-364
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2021.02.19
    PDF: em/15/em1519.pdf

    Ze względu na nietolerancję społeczną zachowań związanych z tożsamością płciową, większość osób transpłciowych doświadcza poważnego stresu na różnych etapach swojego życia. Aspekty relacji społecznych są istotne dla godnego i przyjaznego funkcjonowania dziecka transpłciowego w szkole i jego osiągnięć szkolnych, a następnie – już jako osoby dorosłej – ścieżek rozwoju zawodowego i podejmowania relacji społecznych. Podczas gdy niektóre szkoły i miejsca pracy oferują bezpieczne przestrzenie, wiele osób transpłciowych wciąż doświadcza negatywnych, wrogich i niebezpiecznych środowisk. Bez określonych działań mających na celu ochronę osób transpłciowych i szerzenie wiedzy na temat transpłciowości w społeczeństwie, większość osób o nienormatywnej tożsamości płciowej pozostaje podatna na dyskryminację, nękanie i zastraszanie. Dlatego tak ważne jest diagnozowanie trudności w funkcjonowaniu społecznym osób transpłciowych i wskazanie propozycji rozwiązań zmierzających do poprawy ich sytuacji w warunkach wykluczenia.

  • Mowa nienawiści w stosunku do mniejszości rasowych, narodowych i etnicznych jako granica wolności wypowiedzi. Uwagi na tle wybranych orzeczeń Europejskiego Trybunału Praw Człowieka

    Author: Agnieszka Łukaszczuk
    Institution: Akademia Ekonomiczno-Humanistyczna w Warszawie
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5350-3272
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 217-226
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.16
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6316.pdf

    Hate speech in relation to racial, national and ethnic minorities as the limitation of freedom of expression. Notes on the example of selected judgments of the European Court of Human Rights

    Hate speech in relation to racial, national and ethnic minorities is a common matter, appearing more and more frequently in public space and taking different forms depending on its brutality. There is a very thin line between hate speech and freedom of expression. Confronted with the wider freedom of speech and expression, hate speech requires taking some critical steps by both domestic and international authorities. The European Court of Human Rights, while examining the complaints concerning violations of the freedom of expression, verifies whether its limitations have certain grounds in the applicable law. The past jurisprudence of the Court clearly indicates when freedom of speech ends and hate speech begins, especially when offensive content is formulated in the mass media, e.g., on the Internet.

  • Glosa do wyroku Federalnego Sądu Najwyższego Szwajcarii z 8 września 2020 r. (sprawa Caster Semenyi)

    Author: Beata Stępień-Załucka
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1802-680X
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 587-597
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.05.48
    PDF: ppk/63/ppk6348.pdf

    Some remarks on the judgment of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 8 September 2020 (Caster Semenya case)

    This article deals with an important for the world of sport ruling of the Swiss Federal Tribunal of 2020 (in the case of the athlete Caster Semenya) decided against the background of the legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. It presents an overview of the problem and its resolution, as well as possible further implications of the case, related to the standards of human rights protection existing under the European Convention on Human Rights. The author presents the principles of the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, respect for private and family life and the prohibition of discrimination and makes a legal assessment of the judgment in the case from their perspective. The analysis results in conclusions concerning legal aspects of gender differences and sports competition. These conclusions have a universal dimension and apply to the broadly defined sub-discipline of law, which is the sports law.

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