• Wybrane koncepcje socjologii medycyny w badaniach międzykulturowych oraz badaniu osób z niepełnosprawnością i ich rodzin

    Author: Urszula Klajmon-Lech
    Institution: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 199-212
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/em.2019.01.11
    PDF: em/10/em1011.pdf

    W artykule prezentuję wybrane koncepcje z zakresu socjologii medycyny, które są, moim zdaniem, przydatne w pedagogicznej refleksji nad osobami z niepełnosprawnością i ich rodzinami oraz szeroko pojmowanej pedagogice międzykulturowej. Dotyczą one zagadnień związanych z rolą chorego w przestrzeni społecznej, psychospołecznych konsekwencji choroby, m.in. stygmatyzowania osób chorych/z niepełnosprawnością oraz relacji tych osób i ich rodzin ze środowiskiem medycznym (lekarzami, personelem medycznym).

  • Antonine Plague, Black Death and Smallpox Epidemic versus COVID-19. How Did Humankind Cope with the Grapple Against the Biggest Epidemics, and What Does it Look Like Today?

    Author: Agnieszka Banaś
    Institution: University of Opole
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9095-0883
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 82-98
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021206
    PDF: so/20/so2006.pdf

    This article is devoted to the problems that prevail in times from antiquity to the present day. The specter of an epidemic, known to humankind since the dawn of time, was a negative phenomenon, destabilizing contemporary life and having a significant impact on biological, social, economic and cultural aspects. It was impossible to protect against the epidemic – until the 19th century, medicine did much more damage than we might imagine. Doctors were powerless against diseases, they healed as much as they could, unable to overcome the specter of the coming plague. Is not that also the case today? COVID-19 is not much different from the “epidemics” that hit our country in previous centuries. Both in the past and today, there is no cure for the disease that prevails today, only to treat its external symptoms. The juxtaposition of some of the largest in the history of the world right now, and comparing them to the COVID-19 raging since autumn 2019 shows us that with the medicine of that time, we are not threatened with such depopulation of the world as it used to be... to our heritage, look at the works on the plagues to learn from them for the future. The article cites historical and literary sources, as well as older or newer studies, showing how much evil epidemics once caused, how people tried to protect against them, and if the threat appeared in their area, how it was fought.

  • Ktoś nie zakręcił słoika – obraz pandemii we współczesnej literaturze rosyjskiej

    Author: Patrycja Spytek
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2638-5255
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 99-109
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/so2021207
    PDF: so/20/so2007.pdf

    Someone Did Not Close the Jar – A Picture of a Pandemic in Modern Russian Literature

    Mankind has survived many plagues. Advances in science, including medicine and pharmacy, have resulted in many once deadly diseases elimination. Before this happened, the plagues had decimated the countryside and cities. Even the richest and most influential citizens were unable to protect themselves and their relatives from inevitable death. Lying at the junction of Europe and Asia, Russia also was plagued by epidemics, which found artistic reflection in art and literature. The topic of the pandemic remains relevant. There will probably be many more of its literary versions. The article is only a contribution to deeper literary research and analysis. Each of the mentioned authors paints the portrait of “plague” from a different perspective, which makes the topic more interesting, multifaceted, and also testifies to the wide scale of the phenomenon and its impact on contemporary Russian literature. Over time, the list of appeals will be expanded, but today these seem to be the most representative.

  • Medycyna i jej metafory. O roli metafor w komunikacji lekarz–pacjent

    Author: Jan Domaradzki
    Institution: Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 27-46
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2015.03.02
    PDF: kie/109/kie10902.pdf

    Metaphors are vital for medical practice and experience of illness. They enable negotiation of shared semantic space between physician’s and patient’s thought and language. For patients metaphors brighten difficult and abstract medical terminology regarding diagnosis, course of illness and therapy. They help attach shared meanings to body, health and illness. Metaphors also enable construction of the idea of what illness actually is, and thus they help in dealing with illness’ experience. It is due to the fact that metaphors enable expression of thoughts and feeling that are difficult to articulate: pain, suffering and fear of death. On the other hand, making use of metaphors may lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretation of reality. They may be a source of confusion, stereotypes and social exclusion. All in all, medical education should stress that medicine is not only a technē but also an art of interpretation in which metaphors are of key importance. Thus, this paper aims to describe main metaphors present in medical discourse: military metaphor, detective, terror, mechanic, (bio) informative, (bio)chemist, puzzle and riddle, economic, sport, ecologic, automobile, journey and dirt. I also describe some of metaphors present in genetic discourse: DNA as a text, code, information just as sacral and cartographic metaphors. My main thesis suggests, in opposition to Susan Sontag, that metaphors are vital to our understanding of illness and are essential for doctor - patient communication.

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