• Cybertools of Political Competition and the 2016 American Presidential Campaign

    Author: Marek Górka
    E-mail: marek_gorka@wp.pl
    Institution: Koszalin University of Technology
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 628-641
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2018403
    PDF: ppsy/47-4/ppsy2018403.pdf

    In the last decade, one can notice the huge interest of researchers in the field of cyberpolicy, which is primarily due to the widespread use of the Internet in the public space. This fact is also an impulse for conducting interdisciplinary research that combines knowledge from social sciences on the one hand, and uses content from technical sciences on the other. Compared to the form of conducting election campaigns in the 20th century in the U.S., during the 2016 election campaign there were significant changes in the conduct of political struggle. These changes consist above all in the use of cybernetic tools, which to a large extent, however difficult to determine, shaped electoral behavior. The contemporary political competition is more and more dependent on technology, which becomes the main element of the professionalization of election campaigns. Investigating the impact of cyberspace on electoral results is a big challenge, considering the fact that the area of cybertechnology is extremely complex. Cyberspace has now become a field for many political phenomena that are constantly evolving and in most cases their importance is immense for the functioning of the political system. The article is intended to deal with selected phenomena related to cybertechnology that were compared with other events from the U.S. election campaign in 2016. The article aims to investigate selected events resulting from the use of cybertechnology, which had an impact on electoral behavior.

  • Disinformation Virus: Fake News in the Pandemic Era

    Author: Karolina Pałka-Suchojad
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 32-41
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.03
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6803.pdf

    This article describes the issue of misinformation during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, which WHO called ‘infodemic’. The outbreak of the pandemic has changed the constellation of the information environment, where there is a noticeable increase in fake news, conspiracy theories and the hate speech they generate. The modified architecture of digital space causes the formation of new instruments, influence factors, phenomena – previously recognized, but never before so intense. The article focuses on fake news that appeared in connection with the ongoing pandemic and which is present in Polish public discourse. The adopted perspective allowed to look at the phenomenon of false information through the prism of the theory of information laundering.

  • Strategic communications: current state within security and defence sector

    Author: Viktoria Kushnir
    E-mail: mou-infopress@ukr.net
    Institution: National Defence University of Ukraine named after Ivan Cherniakhovskyi
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0805-4092
    Author: Iryna Izhutova
    E-mail: perevod_vu@ukr.net
    Institution: National Defence University of Ukraine named after Ivan Cherniakhovskyi
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2614-7014
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 68-77
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021205
    PDF: rop/16/rop1605.pdf

    In the current dynamic world the strategic communications (STRATCOM) mean a comprehensive process which is aimed at developing, promoting, and distributing the required narratives and messages of any organization in order to form and ensure its positive image, inform counterparts (adversaries) and target audiences of the organization’s intents and positions, main tasks and achievements. While implementing the STRATCOM, it is very important to remember about their main rules and principles which are unique for both security and defence sector and business. Unfortunately, in the current “hybrid” measurement sometimes we should realize the effectiveness of the SC activities, thus it is necessary to define the measurements of effectiveness and performance for effective evaluation of activities. Ukraine has been repelling the aggression in the Eastern Ukraine since 2014 within massive hybrid warfare against it. This fact has caused the initiating a range of reform and innovative processes in Ukraine. Since then, we have known about the STRATCOM in Ukraine. In (Historical retrospective analysis of formation and development of strategic communications in security and defence sector of Ukraine) we have analyzed the process of development of the SC in security and defence sector. This process was speeded and pressed up by the warfare. Moreover, it was implemented in line with existing NATO principles and standards. Even the definition and concept of the STRATCOM were taken from the NATO documents. However, the reality reveals the necessity to revise the term definition and consider the implementation of business processes related to communications in security and defence sector. Some nations have already passed through this transformation and changed the approach to their SC. Even NATO Military Policy on Strategic Communications MC 0628 was successfully used until 2014. It is the STRATCOM baseline documents and it needed to be revised (NATO and Strategic Communications. The story so far. The Three Swords Magazine 33/2018. pp. 65–73). In the article the authors make some proposals how to improve the STRATCOM definition and improve the whole process of their realization.

  • Formy i efektywność rosyjskiego oddziaływania informacyjnego na Białorusi

    Author: Aliaksandr Kazak
    Institution: Belarusian Analytical Workroom
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 240-251
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/cip202012
    PDF: cip/18/cip1812.pdf

    W artykule zaprezentowano formułę rosyjskiego oddziaływania propagandowego jakiemu państwo rosyjskie poddaje obywateli Białorusi. Wskazano cele i grupy docelowe tego oddziaływania, dokonano oceny ich efektywności oraz przedstawiono możliwe formy reakcji, mającej na celu przygotowanie Białorusinów do umiejętnego dostrzegania działań mających na celu dezinformację, manipulację i kształtowanie opinii publicznej zgodnie z rosyjskimi celami politycznymi.

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