duty

  • Ex oriente lux: Roman Dmowski w Japonii

    Author: Michihro Yasui
    Year of publication: 2014
    Source: Show
    Pages: 241-254
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/npw2014113
    PDF: npw/06/npw2014113.pdf

    Roman Dmowski’s journey to Japan after the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War is a well-known episode in the modern history of Poland. As far as we know, Dmowski, after his arrival in Japan, wrote two memorandum in English (one is about political and social relations in Russia and the another is about the political situation in Poland) for the Japanese General Staff, and in the name of the Japanese government wrote an appeal to Polish soldiers in the Russian army to leave it and surrender. In a street in Tokyo Dmowski by chance met Józef Piłsudski, a member of the Polish Socialist Party and Dmowski’s political opponent, who was also visiting Japan, seeking for military aid from the Japanese government. Three days later they had their famous „nineteen hours’ talk” at the hotel. After it Dmowski sent a memorandum to Baron Jutarō Komura, Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs, in which he expounded how harmful it would be for the war strategy of Japan if an insurrection breaks out in Poland. Besides these activities, we should pay due attention to the effect of Dmowski’s stay in Japan on his view of nation or society. Dmowski’s nine weeks stay in Japan (from 15 May to 22 July, 1904) was only in a part of the first stage of the war which broke out in February 1904 and ended in June 1905. Despite this fact, it should be emphasized that Dmowski’s knowledge about Japanese people was so much richer than we suppose. This paper presents some interesting episodes with a special Focus on the conversation with General Gentarō Kodama and his experience of his visits to Japanese prisoner-of-war camps in Matsuyama, where he interviewed Polish soldiers. Dmowski was strongly impressed by the behavior and way of thinking of Japanese people and stated later that it influenced his views immensely, among others his view on society and the nation. The effect of his experience in Japan mostly ap pears in his work „Essentials of Polish Politics” which was published in „The All- Polish Review” in May 1905 and was added as supplementary chapters to the third edition of „Thoughts of a Modern Pole” (1907). In this important article the father of modern Polish nationalism could clarify his views on „national instinct” and „national ethics”.

  • The Duty to Care for the State of the Environment in Polish Constitutional Regulations

    Author: Anna Hadała-Skóra
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6432-5651
    Author: Sabina Grabowska
    Institution: University of Rzeszow
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0530-708X
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 103-121
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop201907
    PDF: rop/2019/rop201907.pdf

    According to the Polish constitutional tradition, regulations concerning the duties of man and citizen can be found in chapter II of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland devoted to the rights and freedoms of the Polish Constitution, specifically in Articles 82-86 inclusive. The Constitution devotes relatively little space to its duties, and the catalog indicated therein is not extensive. The purpose of articulating obligations in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland is primarily to emphasize the most important ones from the point of view of the state, society and individual. In each country, some constitutional obligations are addressed only to citizens, while others are imposed on all who are subject to the authority of a given country. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland also does so. Indicated in art. 86 the obligation to care for the state of the environment and responsibility for its deterioration is in the group of universal obligations in terms of subject, which are imposed on every person who is within the jurisdiction of the Republic of Poland. This study is an analysis of the concept of environment, care for the state of the environment and the provisions of the constitution on this subject.

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