Estonia

  • Is Electronic Voting a Panacea for Low Election Turnout? Examples of Estonian e–Elections and Swiss e–Referendums

    Author: Magdalena Musiał–Karg
    Institution: Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2012
    Source: Show
    Pages: 428-443
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2012021
    PDF: ppsy/41/ppsy2012021.pdf

    One of the most apparent signs of the crisis of the democratic system is a systematically decreasing turnout level in national and supranational elections and referenda. In reports and analyses concerning the level of political participation, experts more and more frequently notice a decreasing tendency of the citizen’s involvement in numerous types of elections. As Ola Pettersson points out, “according to the sources, less and less citizens appear at the ballot boxes”. Jacek Raciborski indicates that one of the most signifi cant consequences of the low citizen’s participation at the election procedures is the considerable legitimacy deficit. A number of countries attempt to prevent these phenomena from happening by undertaking various actions aimed at increasing the level of citizens’ involvement in political life (notably by increasing their participation in elections). That would infl uence the growth of the legitimacy level of the undertaken political decisions. It is worth noticing, that apart from the commonly used ways of increasing election attendance (such as correspondence voting, mobile ballot boxes), over the last few years politicians in many countries have had numerous discussions aimed at the implementation of electronic voting (e-voting). Its followers claim that thanks to e-voting, election and referenda turnout may be increased, as this method enables disabled people and people who are abroad to take part in elections. Furthermore, a considerable advantage of e voting, compared to traditional voting in polling stations is of greater convenience than the former. The aim of the following text is to attempt to provide an answer to the question whether electronic voting can be treated as a panacea for low election turnouts, whether this form of voting may be a warranty of a higher level of voter’s attendance than before. In the article, the author bases on the experience connected with e voting in two European countries – Estonia and Switzerland, which can be referred to as the pioneers in the use of e voting.

  • Finansowanie partii politycznych w Republice Estonii

    Author: Justyna Ciechanowska
    E-mail: justyna.mokrzycka@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Author: Katarzyna Szwed
    E-mail: kmszwed@gmail.com
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 133-150
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.04.07
    PDF: ppk/38/ppk3807.pdf

    Funding of political parties in Estonia is determined mainly by the Political Parties Act enacted in 1994. It was amended many times and the last meaningful modifications were introduced in 2014. The act assumes a diversification of the financing sources and allows parties to be financed from allocations from the state budget, donations given by a natural persons, membership fees, transactions with the property of the political parties as well as loans. It is worth mentioning that clarity and transparency principles of political parties’ funding are guaranteed by an operation of the independent supervisory body – Estonian Party Funding Supervision Committee.

  • Memoriał Ofi ar Komunizmu w Tallinie. Symbolika miejsca pamięci

    Author: Marcin Zaborski
    Institution: Uniwersytet SWPS
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 87-100
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.66.06
    PDF: apsp/66/apsp6606.pdf

    Autor przedstawia genezę i analizuje symbolikę Memoriału Ofiar Komunizmu w Tallinie. Skupia się na założeniach koncepcyjnych przyjętych przez jego autorów, ale też bierze pod uwagę dokonywane później interpretacje przesłania monumentu. Przywołuje wydarzenia, do których odnosi się to miejsce pamięci. Opisuje okres sowieckiej okupacji Estonii i przedstawia bilans dokonywanych w tamtym czasie represji - masowych aresztowań, potajemnych egzekucji, deportacji ludności i brutalnej kolektywizacji rolnictwa. Tak zarysowany kontekst historyczny pozwala lepiej zrozumieć znaczenie opisywanego pomnika i jego miejsce na mapie pamięci współczesnej Estonii. Autor zwraca jednocześnie uwagę, że talliński pomnik stanowi istotny element nie tylko estońskiej, ale też - szerzej - europejskiej pamięci o ofiarach stalinizmu i komunizmu.

  • Estonian Way to the Digital State : Determinants of the Development of the Republic of Estonia

    Author: Kamila Sierzputowska
    Institution: Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 160-176
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/athena.2020.68.11
    PDF: apsp/68/apsp6811.pdf

    The text below is an attempt to describe circumstances of emerging and further phases of development of the Republic of Estonia with particular attention focused on geopolitical conditions of political, economic and social processes shaping the country and having impact on its international image. Depicting respective periods in the history of Estonia and conducting an analysis of the contemporary Republic of Estonia, the author of the article describes the way that this small Baltic state successfully made to become a modern digital state.

  • Regulacja stanów nadzwyczajnych w Republice Estońskiej a pandemia COVID-19

    Author: Katarzyna Szwed
    E-mail: szwed@ur.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2755-2804
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 375-387
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2021.04.24
    PDF: ppk/62/ppk6224.pdf

    Regulation of emergency states in the Republic of Estonia and the COVID-19 pandemic

    There are two types of emergency states distinguished by the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia: state of emergency and state of war. They have been sparsely regulated at the level of the Constitution, leaving detailed issues to statutory regulation. The decision in this regard requires the cooperation of parliament with the authorities of executive power, i.e. the president and the government. The threat to the health and lives of citizens posed by a coronavirus pandemic is not a circumstance justifying the imposition of a state of emergency, let alone a state of war as stipulated in §§128–129 of the Constitution. Thus, the Estonian authorities in March 2020 decided to apply the mechanism of §87 section 8 of the Constitution.

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