ethnic minorities

  • Vpliv pereselenskogo rukhu v USRR na etnіchnijj sklad naselennja pіvdnja respublіki u 1920-kh – na pochatku 1930-kh rokіv

    The influence of the resettlement movement in the Ukrainian SSR on the ethnic composition of the south region population of the republic in the beginning of 1920th–1930th. Th e article outlines the causes of agrarian overpopulation in the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and government’s measures for the relocation of minorities into southern regions (Odessa, Kherson, Mykolaiv, KryvyiRih, Katerinoslavsk, Zaporozhye, Mariupol districts). Also lands were granted for Dutch, Belarusians, Swedes, Armenians, Czechs, Georgians and representatives of other nationalities. But this data is not conclusive because in addition to the officially planned there were unauthorized resettlements. Their numbers reached tens of thousands of people.

  • Myśl polityczna polskiego konspiracyjnego ruchu narodowego w czasie II wojny światowej

    Political thought of polish underground national movement during World War II

    Nationalists were one of the numerous Polish political movements during World War II. Actively engaging in the fight against the occupying forces, they suffered heavy losses, but does not prevent them in the creation of significant heritage in the field of political thought. The aim of the article is to present the political thought of Polish national movement during the Second World War. Historical, qualitative and comparative methods were used. The whole has been divided into several parts,, in which author examines the with issues of political thought as: Polish war aims, vision of state borders, ratio to national minorities, vision of the political system, economic vision, vision of national security, education and upbringing. The whole article has to show how rich the heritage of those generations.

  • Ethnic Fragmentation as Challenge for Post-Socialist Georgia

    Article is giving the information on basic situation on civic integration in Georgia. Georgia, as multi-ethnic country, is facing the obvious problems with civic integration. The biggest part of the minorities (Azeris and Armenians) are ill-represented and performed in Georgian public. Therefore, Georgian statehood stands against the severe problems of inclusion of minorities in public space. There are number of models of minority accommodation from the international perspectives and experiences. Georgia should choose one of them. However, there is no standard model of such issue. In every case, each country stands vis a vis peculiarities and 100% transplantation of any foreign model on local level is not relevant and adequate. Author, discussing the perspectives of civic integration, is arguing in favor of “integration” model against the “assimilation”, “differentiation” and pure “multiculturalism”. In case of “assimilation”, the country will face the just claims from the minority side about losing their identities. If we adjust the model of “differentiation”, that means to exclude the minorities from public life. Pure “multiculturalism” will stimulate the further fragmentation of the country. “Integration” model with some multicultural element seems more relevant and workable in Georgian realities.

  • The Citizenship Policies of the Baltic States within the EU Framework on Minority Rights

    The ethnic landscape in the Baltic States is dominated by one large ethnic minority: Russians. Lithuania is an exception as here the first biggest ethnic minority are Poles, followed by Russians. The Baltic States have also significant Slavic minorities, such as Belarusians and Ukrainians. There are many barriers for people from different ethnic groups to overcome because the Baltic societies are segregated according to ethnicity across a number of dimensions: language, work and geography. During the Soviet period there were separate language schools, a system that reinforced ethnic separation. Labor market was also split along ethnic lines and a large proportion of ethnic minorities lived spatially segregated from the majority group and was concentrated mostly in urban centers. The impact of communist heritage and the construction of the post-communist state order had a negative impact on the integration process of the Russian minorities in those countries. The ethnic Russians had been heavily marginalized as many of them had no citizenship at all. As a result, they had limited access to labor-market and less social protection. However, the accession of the Baltic States to the European Union (EU) has succeeded in significantly changing policies with respect for and protection of minorities in the three Baltic countries. In the last years the ethnic Russians have in fact been partially accommodated through the consistency of the citizenship laws with the European Union norms, which precisely require the protection of minorities and respect for them. The aim of the study described herein is to investigate the historic roots of ethnic segregation between the native Baltic population and the Russian minority and show how the entry of the Baltic States into the EU has facilitated the process of promoting minority rights, especially from the perspective of granting citizenship right to Russian (and Polish) ethnic persons living in those countries.

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