• Vencer el miedo para recuperar la identidad: el confl icto armado en Colombia y la masacre de Bojayá

    Author: Juan Pablo Ortiz Ramos
    Institution: Universidad de Silesia
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 163-177
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/sal201905
    PDF: sal/9/sal905.pdf

    Overcoming the fear of recovering the identity: the armed conflict in Colombia and the Bojayá massacre

    This article demonstrates the violence in Colombia as a background to the historical events in the country and the way it led to the armed conflict which lasted for over the fifty years. This war continued, with the involvement of the Military Forces of Colombia, the police, the guerrilla and the paramilitary until it reached El Atrato, a very poor and vulnerable part of the country. That is where the massacre of Bojayá took place, one of the most violent acts in the recent history of Colombia. The outcome was a high rate of victims and countless number of stories full of pain and misery. However, the survivors, against all odds, started to overcome the fear and recover. In their culture abandoning the corpse was not accepted. In consequence, they started to fight for their ideals. The article focuses on the way the inhabitants of Bojayá regained their identity and their owning to strong bonds and traditions. It has been written based on academic research and on the leadership that the victims have achieved in the public and mass media field in Colombia. They managed to get the mortal remains of the members of their community exhumed and transferred to Medellin to be identified and, in front of their executioners and in front of the world, they sang their alabaos, they could tell their story that denounced the barbarism and demanded a better future.

  • Symbols of Fear in the Studies of Drawings by Polish and Turkish Children

    Author: Ewelina Justyna Konieczna
    Institution: University of Opole
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9109-8995
    Author: Ertuğrul Talu
    Institution: University of Kırşehir Ahi Evran
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3062-6130
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 172-185
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2021.02.12
    PDF: kie/132/kie13212.pdf

    The authors present results of their studies dealing with symbols of fear identified in drawings made by Polish and Turkish children. The studies consisted in comparing results with regard to the categories and content of symbols recognized in the drawings presented by younger school-age children of the two nationalities. For the needs of the comparative analysis the following questions were formulated: In what way did the children present their fears in their drawings? How can the similarities in the symbols of fear presented in the drawings by Polish and Turkish children be interpreted? What do the observed differences testify to? Comparison of the symbols of fear allowed recognizing the similarities and differences occurring in the drawings produced by the examined children. It was found that the largest number of drawings present a symbol of fear connected with the category of animals. While interpreting the results, the authors accepted the thesis that the grasped similarities relating to the manner of presenting fear result from the common history of man, recorded in archetypes and symbols. On the other hand, the observed differences are connected with the tradition present in each of the cultures.

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