finanse publiczne

  • Pierwsza i druga „reforma federalizmu” w Republice Federalnej Niemiec – zmiany Ustawy Zasadniczej z 2006 i 2009 r. w odniesieniu do kompetencji prawodawczych i stosunków finansowych Związku i krajów

    Author: Marcin Przybysz
    E-mail: przybysz@implegal.pl
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 137-154
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2017.01.07
    PDF: ppk/35/ppk3507.pdf

    The text contains description and analysis of changes of 2006 and 2009 in the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany concerning legislative powers and financial relations of federation and länder. The text begins with a description of advancing for over 50 years “process of policies’ merging”, described already in seventies of 20th century as a “trap”. Therefore, it was important to try to resolve the problem by two large amendments of the German constitution in 2006 and 2009 (i.e. the 1st and the 2nd reforms of federalism). The author describes assumptions and instruments applied by the first reform, ie. strengthening of legislative competences of the Union and länder, reducing the number of cases towards which the Bundesrat may apply the absolute veto, limiting so-called “mixed funding”, making “blocking up” of the Union and the countries through new regulation of matters more difficult by requiring the approval of the Bundesrat, as well as the adjustment of the Basic Law to the challenges of membership of Germany in the European Union. In this context the second reform of federalism was also the subject of analysis. The reform amended the system of mutual financial relations of the Union and countries and introduced a so-called “debt brake” (Schuldenbremse) but also limited some solutions which had been introduced three years before.

  • Chosen Dysfunctions of Political Practice in Local Government’s Activities

    Author: Marcin Dąbrowski
    E-mail: marcin.dabrowski@uwm.edu.pl
    Institution: University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8780-9715
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 405-416
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/ppk.2020.06.33
    PDF: ppk/58/ppk5833.pdf

    The paper presents four problems which constitute the most important problems related to the functioning of local government in Poland. The first issue concerns the unfinished reform of the political system. The author finds that the legislator did not implement fully the assumptions concerning the creation and functioning of local governments which are determined in the provisions of the Polish Constitution of 1997. In consequence, a contemporary political system is full of internal contradictions and does not function properly. Next, it was indicated in the work that the legislator interferes too much in the independence of local government units. Too many acts, which regulate duties and procedures, limit the autonomy of local government bodies which should determine their duties and objectives and allocate financial resources to their implementation. Third, the author finds that the permanent underfinancing of local government units poses a very serious problem. The system of financing is outdated and does not correspond to contemporary needs of local communities, which results in a decrease in investments and development and an increase in debt. Finally, the article discusses the issue of excessive politicization of local governments. The author finds that transferring political disputes from the central level to the local one is very detrimental and has a negative influence on the development and functioning of local governments.

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