• Otfried Höffe’s Theory of Social Justice

    Author: Liudmyla Sytnichenko
    Institution: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine)
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 23-31
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppsy/44/ppsy2015003.pdf

    The problem of justice, one of the key problems of contemporary political philosophy, is reconsidered in the light of a new paradigm: Otfried Höffe’s theory of transcendental exchange. The main research question is how this theory influences our understanding of the ways of formation of just moral and legal grounds in contemporary society. In order to understand justice adequately, it is important to regard it as personal responsibility, deeply related to attitudes of solidarity and recognition. There is an attempt to fuse moral and material grounds of social existence in order to overcome social injustice. Freedom and justice are rooted in the living world and are based on formal norms and procedures of morality and law. This gives us methodological grounds for understanding Höffe’s philosophy of political justice, which regards freedom and justice as the main conditions of human existence.

  • Razlichija mezhdu ontologicheskimi osnovami polskojj i russkojj kultur Chelovek. Svoboda. Istorija. Gosudarstvo

    Author: Katarzyna Kowalska - Stus
    Institution: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Poland
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 123-145
    DOI Address:
    PDF: npw/13/npw2017208.pdf

    Societies create cultural models in order to maintain their identity. They constitute a reflection of values and symbols to which they are the most attached. In Russia, there has been a dispute about cultural identity for a long time. During Vladimir Putin’s presidency, when the liberal idea was devalued, a serious debate about the future of Russia was commenced. In contrast to Russia, Poland has always emphasized its European roots and identity of its culture with the Western culture. Comparative studies of the two cultures lead to the conclusion that significant differences are views of: man, freedom and the state. The definition of man in a given culture is associated with the worldview. In Russian culture it has been formulated on the basis of monastic practice and experience of Church Fathers. Hesychasm and deification – are the basis of the Orthodox anthropology. In the contemporary Russian culture one can observe the revival of hesychasm, which stems from the life practice. Latin anthropology was formed under the influence of Saint Augustine’s Confessions. According to Augustine, man is dust and only his „self ”, the person, is endowed with „existence, consciousness and will”. Augustine was the first Latin theologian, who pointed out the historical subjectivity of an individual. Therefore, the European thought identified man with historical ones: the state, nation and economics. The issue of a person’s freedom is the basic issue of Western anthropology. Man perceived himself as an autonomous entity that exists thanks to the autonomous intellect and respects the rights of others adhering to the same principles. Freedom in Orthodox culture is understood as inner freedom from external determinants Saint Augustine formulated a number of problems which are the basis of the Western understanding of the state. The specificity of understanding Augustine’s state is associated with the belief that people are sinful and it has an impact on the state system. Russian state doctrine is connected with Byzantine heritage. The idea of Moscow the Third Rome is a continuation of Byzantine diarchy. The contemporary Russian state thought says that liberal democracy and internationalism are unfamiliar to Russian culture. It finds it necessary to return to the ideocratic country and calls for recovering from the Russian disease of self-consciousness – “occidentalistic rootlessness”.


  • Pojęcie „socjalizmu” w myśli politycznej Alexisa de Tocqueville’a

    Author: mgr Jonathan Scovil
    Institution: Uniwersytet Warszawski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 30-41
    DOI Address:
    PDF: siip/16/siip1602.pdf

    The notion of „socialism” in political thought of Alexis de Tocqueville

    The article presents an analysis of an original conception of socialism outlined in the works of Alexis de Tocqueville. The author begins with a brief presentation of historical context in which the views of French thinker were shaped, referring to his experiences from the period of the July Revolution of 1830 and the February Revolution of 1848. The author goes on to detailed analysis of his definition of socialism, making an indispensable reference to his republican conception of freedom and the role of a citizen in democracy. Finally, the author looks at Tocquevillian vision of genesis of socialist ideas, associated by him with anxiety, which democratic system inevitably generates.

  • Polityka antyterrorystyczna jako dylemat demokracji liberalnej

    Author: dr Marek Górka
    Institution: Politechnika Koszalińska
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 62-89
    DOI Address:
    PDF: siip/16/siip1604.pdf

    Anti-terrorism policy as a dilemma of liberal democracy

    Terrorism is harmful to democratic governments and societies. In addition to the visible and the direct effects of attacks on bystanders, aim bombers are undermining democratic values, including the weakening of confidence in state institutions and laws that regulate their functioning. As a result of the use of violence can permanently give birth to create a socio-political divisions, antagonize certain entities and groups, and thus provoke conflicts thus destroying the existing compromises, agreements or arrangements between the parties concerned. In matters of international terrorism it is not only a challenge for the rule of law, but because it also applies to relations between states, poses a serious threat to security and stability.

  • Libertarianism, Freedom and the Problem of Circularity

    Author: Łukasz Dominiak
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 7-17
    DOI Address:
    PDF: apsp/59/apsp5901.pdf

    In the present paper the author considers a challenge to libertarianism posed by G.A. Cohen. The charge issued by Cohen says that libertarianism defines freedom in terms of justice and justice in terms of freedom. The paper deals with an aspect of this charge as expressed by one of Cohen’s thought experiments according to which it is not the case that the answer to the question whether person B forces person A to do φ depends on whether person B’s actions are legitimate or not. Employing the Hohfeldian analysis of fundamental jural conceptions, the author demonstrates that if person B’s actions are legitimate, then making person A to do φ cannot, at pains of contradiction, be considered forcing. If person B is at a liberty to make person A to do φ, then person B cannot at the same time and in the same respect be at duty not to make person A to do φ. Yet, this is exactly what would follow if we adopted the stance that person B’s legitimate actions force person A to do φ. If they forced person A, then the expenditure of whatever labour needed to do φ would not be a voluntary expenditure and thereby would constitute a violation of person A’s rights to this labour. However, if person A’s rights were violated by person B’s actions, then via Hohfeldian Correlativity Axiom person B would have to be at duty not to undertake these actions. Yet, the whole reasoning started from the assumption that person B is at liberty to undertake them.

  • Rudolf Steiner o wolności człowieka

    Author: Marta Baranowska
    Author: Paweł Fiktus
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 29-42
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/117/kie11702.pdf

    The purpose of the article was the analysis of two topics: the freedom and new society in Steiner’s philosophy. Steiner in The Philosophy of Freedom postulates that the world is essentially an indivisible unity. He suggests, that freedom can only be approached gradually with the aid of the creative activity of thinking. The ability to think and act independently is a possibility for modern consciousness. The process of free action also includes the liberation from given (unreflected) natural driver, instincts and the commands of reason or authorities. The free action, are those for which we are fully conscious of the motive. He concludes, that freedom is the spiritual activity of penetrating with consciousness our own nature. The most striking feature of Anthroposophy will be deemed, at first sight, to be the cultivation of the soul’s inward life and the opening of the eyes to a spiritual world. But these doctrines are the foes of real life. The best situation would result if one would give people free way. He has the trust that they would find their direction themselves.

  • Ku społeczeństwu obywatelskiemu. Czego dziś może nas nauczyć pragmatyzm?

    Author: Marcin Kilanowski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-62
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/115/kie11503.pdf

    It can be striking for us today that when so little divides us there is still so much that separates us from each other. We observe the fragility of social cohesion and witness the degradation of social capital even though some say that our religious belief as well as material conditions or differences in political rights no longer divide us. In the light of critical observations, one can say that there is a need to reconcile people with each other, to establish bonds between us, that we need to establish civil society. When trying to establish a well-functioning civil society we have to ask ourselves a few crucial questions. These questions include: How can Western individualism be combined with the values of community and social solidarity? What are the necessary conditions for freedom and solidarity among people? To answer these questions it is worth reaching the philosophical thought of John Dewey and Roberto Unger. In his text Roberto Unger points out that today’s social and political order is not something solid and stable. Even our democratic order that I was referring to in this paper faces challenges that may undermine its base. Without the right preparation to face these challenges-through responsible and critical public participation and deliberation-it is possible that instead of us having some sort of possibility of steering the growth of our societies and having an impact on political and economic evolution, the evolving situations will steer us. If this happens, we will be left behind, being unable to grasp and handle the different new situations.

  • What Kind of Politics Do We Need? Toward Freedom as Responsibility in Habermas’s and Rorty’s Visions of Democracy

    Author: Marcin Kilanowski
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 50-68
    DOI Address:
    PDF: kie/116/kie11603.pdf

    Isaiah Berlin said that it is part of the human condition to make choices between absolute values. Obviously, this choice cannot be easy. To be well informed, it has to be made in full awareness of the contingency of our criteria. This ability to make choices between absolute values in the light of contingencies is what distinguishes a civilized man from a barbarian, says Berlin, following Joseph Schumpeter. Similar ideas can be found in the philosophy of Richard Rorty, who believes that our liberal societies create more people who understand the contingencies of their vocabularies, but at the same time are still faithful to them. He calls this “freedom as acknowledgement of contingency.” This freedom is bound by the existence of a plurality of voices, which does not mean that it is bound by the existence of chaos. In such a spirit, Jürgen Habermas emphasizes the fact that in spite of the plurality of contingent views, we can find a unity of reason. In spite of plurality of views, we can still come to an agreement thanks to dialogue. The close analysis of Rorty’s and Habermas’s philosophy allows us to see that they share a common stance: thanks to disenchantment of the world, as Rorty says, or thanks to decentralization of the world, as Habermas says. Both are seeing such stance as a precondition to use our freedom in a way to be more tolerant, more open to dialogue and responsible for it. Further analysis allows us to see that there is a possibility to present a new understanding of the notion of freedom-freedom conceived as responsibility.

  • Freedom of Public Assembly in Poland

    Author: Mariusz Bidziński
    Institution: SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 201-213
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/51/ppk5114.pdf

    The right to assembly is a manifestation of the social possibility of influencing state organs by loud and often expressive articulation of the position of a given social group on issues important to it. It should be clearly emphasized that the right to peaceful assembly is a manifestation of freedom and is one of the core guarantees of pluralism, freedom of speech and the nation’s right to decide about self, which one considers a sovereign. Detailed rules and procedures for organizing, conducting and dissolving assemblies have been regulated in the Act of July 24, 2015 of the Act of Assembly Law2. The basic concept – the concept of assembly – has been defined in the Art. 3 of Act of the Assembly Law. According to the adopted systematics, two types of assembly were distinguished: ordinary and spontaneous. The first of these means “a grouping of persons in an open space accessible to unspecified persons in a specific place organized in order to carry our joint deliberations or for joint expression of public opinion”. The organization of the meeting can be practically unlimited. The only requirement is having full legal capacity, which excludes persons partially deprived of legal capacity, regardless of the scope of such limitation and the relationship with the subject of the organized meeting. The process of organizing assemblies is not complicated, although one should be particularly careful about the deadlines and keep in mind the “privileged status” of some other forms of assemblies. The amendment to the Act of 2016 introduced new legal solutions, although definition issues were omitted, which in this case are of fundamental importance for the correct application of the Act and guaranteeing observance of constitutional norms by public administration bodies.

  • Konieczna lekcja uświadomienia historycznego młodzieży. Narodowa tradycja i współczesność

    Author: Barbara Kubis
    Institution: Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne, Oddział Opole
    Year of publication: 2020
    Source: Show
    Pages: 243-257
    DOI Address:
    PDF: acno/9/acno202008.pdf

    A much needed history awareness lesson for students. National tradition and the present day

    This article focuses on the reflections from the period of lockdown and the risks brought by Covid-19 during Spring 2020. History is one of the key subjects that have a significant impact on the shaping of attitudes in a society, as well setting goals for the future, as well as the young. Historians teach how to interpret the past, important facts and essential universal values, and creativity in the pursuit of knowledge. The school education system should be open and implement a model based on showcasing different views and social phenomena. This is where the teachers and history lessons focus their efforts and work towards that common goal. The school education system allows the use of various sources of knowledge, teaching how to critically assess its content. It allows you to step beyond the textbook and support the formation of social awareness in the young generation.

  • Dylematy wolności i ich prawne implikacje

    Author: Artur Łuszczyński
    Institution: Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 159-169
    DOI Address:
    PDF: ppk/61/ppk6110.pdf

    Dilemmas of Freedom and their Legal Implications

    Each legal institution begins from an idea, therefore a thought is primary in relation to the legal norm created by the legislator. This makes the analysis of this idea is significant and cannot be ignored. Freedom is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the contemporary constitutionalism. The article is an analysis of the philosophical and legal understanding of the concept of freedom and the ways of its transfer to the law. The author claims that the concept of freedom is a vague concept for a European lawyer, on the foundation of which it is difficult to build a legal system. On the one hand, this concept seems familiar and it is difficult to directly deny it, but its definition, and even more so, the adoption of the consequences associated with this definition is debatable.

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