gender

  • The participation of women in politics. Deliberations on the gender parity bill

    Author: Joanna Marszałek–Kawa
    Institution: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 82-109
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011006
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011006.pdf

    Male politicians are becoming increasingly aware of the fact that women have great power. Girls account for 50% of the population of school students. Women seem to be much better at handling the financial crisis than men. The recession primarily aftected the masculine part of business – widespread layoffs hit typically male industries, such as cars, tobacco, financial services. In the U.S., men account for 80% of people who lost jobs as the result of the recent crisis. Moreover, it is women that make most decisions relating to household expenses. They are also more inclined to save up for future. They typically spend money on things like education, healthcare, food and cosmetics. They also invest in their children’s future. At present, women have about $10.5 trillion at their disposal, while men have approximately $23.4 trillion. However, this disproportion is still getting smaller. The past decade saw the distance between these two worlds constantly diminish. Women control $12 trillion out of $18.4 trillion spent by consumers every year. Moreover, the increasing number of working women – as Michael J. Silverstein points – means that their income is increasing. 

  • The Category of Gender from the Theoretical Perspective of Equity

    Author: Ulrich Binder
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 154-166
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2017.49.3.12
    PDF: tner/201703/tner20170312.pdf

    The question addressed in this paper asks what is to be learned with respect to the issue of gender ratio when pedagogical and political philosophical analyses apply principles of equity

  • SOLDIER WOMAN WOMAN IN THE ARMS OF THE MARS

    Author: Jarosław J. Piątek
    Institution: University of Szczecin
    Year of publication: 2013
    Source: Show
    Pages: 165-177
    DOI Address: -
    PDF: rop/2013/rop201310.pdf

    A term „violence”, despite transformations of the meanings, has always been connected with relations between genders, and as such, what it means in a given society to be a woman and a man and which economic, social and psychological relations have been assigned to these categories. At least since the 18th century, unequal share of the power between men and women has been justified with, among others, a different share of “passion” and different potential of violence. A real power ready to use violence should be focused on the men side while a tasks of women should be neutralizing men’s readiness to use violence, achieved by subjecting themselves to men. For thousands of years military battles have been almost exclusively a man’s privilege. Even 100 years ago, women did not have a right to vote even in western countries with the longest democratic traditions. Today, giving a woman the highest office in a state is not unusual. So can we talk about a fall of the patriarchy and replacing men by women even in such man fields as war and military battles?

  • The Professional Consequences of Shaping a Sexual Image Among Girls in the Social and Educational Processes

    Author: Joanna Smyła
    Institution: Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
    Year of publication: 2018
    Source: Show
    Pages: 86-97
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2018.54.4.07
    PDF: tner/201804/tner5407.pdf

    This article concerns a significant problem of developing a sexual image among girls during socialization and education as well as its consequences for their position in society and in the job market. Provided analyses deal with the differences between boys and girls with regard to the theory of social construction and they emphasise the role of environmental factors in shaping a sexual image on the part of an individual. The results of research on young females’ situation in the job market conducted among young women and employers have also been discussed by the author with relation to this issue.

  • The Effects of Gender on the Ethical Decision-making of Teachers, Doctors and Lawyers

    Author: Marcin Gierczyk
    E-mail: marcing83@poczta.onet.pl
    Institution: University of Silesia in Katowice
    Author: Tom Harrison
    E-mail: t.j.harrison@bham.ac.uk
    Institution: University of Birmingham
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 147-159
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2019.55.1.12
    PDF: tner/201901/tner5512.pdf

    The article presents the statistical findings of a study that investigated the effects of gender on the ethical decision-making of professionals. Ethical dilemmas were presented to 1,809 teachers, doctors and lawyers in the form of a questionnaire. The individuals were asked to choose a course of action and provide reasons for their choice. What was of particular interest was how the professionals prioritised different moral theories in their decision-making; namely, whether the reasons they gave were deontological, consequential or virtue ethical in nature. The findings are significant for those seeking to revise and improve professional ethical education and practice.

  • The Need for Power and Influence, Sense of Power and Directiveness Among Teachers

    Author: Dagna J. Kocur
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 257-267
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2017.48.2.21
    PDF: tner/201702/tner20170221.pdf

    The aim of the presented research was to answer the question whether people working as teachers differ from other professionals in terms of the sense of and need for power and directiveness. The study group consisted of 198 teachers, while the control group included 156 people from other occupations. The research procedure included: the SPS Sense of Power Scale (Anderson, John, & Keltner, 2012), the Index of Personal Reactions (Bennett, 1988), the SD Direc- tiveness Scale (Ray, 1976) and an extended metric. Teachers had significantly higher results in terms of directiveness, sense of power in the family, sense of power towards colleagues, sense of power towards the supervisor, need for power and resistance to submission. Teachers had significantly lower results in the area of need for influence.

  • Teacher Motivation Based on Gender, Tenure and Level of Education

    Author: Triyanto
    Author: Rif’ati Dina Handayani
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 199-209
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2016.45.3.16
    PDF: tner/201603/tner20160316.pdf

    Teacher motivation plays an important role in the success of education, which is influenced by many factors. Therefore, this article examines how gender, tenure, and level of education influence teacher motivation. Data were collected with the use of questionnaires of 135 Indonesian teacher respondents, in-dept interviews, and observations. Numeric data were analyzed by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS analysis). The research showed that male teachers are more motivated than female teachers. Junior teachers have a higher motivation than senior teachers. Teachers with a bachelor’s degree are more motivated than teachers with a master’s degree.

  • The Family and Modern trends: How to Construct an optimal Model of roles Played in the Family

    Author: Beata Ecler-Nocoń
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 96-106
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2016.44.2.08
    PDF: tner/201602/tner20160208.pdf

    The modern family faces a  variety of ever-changing circumstances which greatly inhibit the selection of clearly defined roles or behaviours that might bring about the good of the whole family. The article describes three models which regulate the roles adopted by individuals within the family. The text defines the optimal method of role creation and selection as one which allows for the simultaneous consideration of not only the variety of possibilities, but also the needs of all family members.

  • Creativity among gifted and non-gifted students

    Author: Maja Matrić
    Author: Matjaž Duh
    Year of publication: 2015
    Source: Show
    Pages: 247-259
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/tner.2015.40.2.21
    PDF: tner/201502/tner20150221.pdf

    An overview of the literature on gifted students suggests that students can be gifted by showing intelligence and/or creative abilities. Whether teachers are able to recognize intelligent and/or creative students is a matter of being skilled and can have a tremendous impact on students’ course of education. In out study, we included students of Slovenian primary schools who were either recognized as gifted or non-gifted by their teachers. To find out what differences occur in the creativity levels of gifted and non-gifted students, their creativity levels were recorded using the LV1Test, measuring their artistic-creative and artistic-appreciative abilities. Data analysis reveals that the gifted students were more successful in gaining a higher average score on the test, as well as the majority of individual items in the test.

  • Il sistema nominale italiano e polacco a confronto: riflessioni sulle categorie grammaticali di genere e caso

    Author: Agnieszka Latos
    E-mail: alatos@swps.edu.pl
    Institution: Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny SWPS
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2549-3839
    Author: Aleksandra Pronińska
    E-mail: Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
    Institution: aleksandra.proninska@up.krakow.pl
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5132-2059
    Year of publication: 2019
    Source: Show
    Pages: 111-131
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/IW.2019.10.1.5
    PDF: iw/10_1/iw10105.pdf

    THE NOMINAL SYSTEMS OF ITALIAN AND POLISH IN COMPARISON: SOME REMARKS ON GENDER AND CASE AS GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

    The present study features a description and comparison of the Italian and Polish nominal systems. Our tertium comparationis are two grammatical categories: gender and case. Gender is morpho-syntactically coded in both languages; case, is morphologically coded only in Polish, while in Italian it is predominantly expressed by the use of prepositions. Focusing on the noun class, we contrastively examine the ways and means used to express the two grammatical meanings. In particular, we compare grammatical meanings expressed by morphological and syntactic cues. As a multifaceted category, grammatical gender classifies Italian and Polish nouns and co-regulates the morpho-syntactic agreement between sentence constituents (controller-target relation), contributing to the decoding of an internal text structure. The morphological case variation of Polish nouns (inflection) is often reinforced by syntactical markers; thus, case coding in Polish occurs both in synthetic and analytic ways. In contrast, Italian uses only analytic means to mark the grammatical meaning of case. The two linguistic systems under examination exhibit a similar formal organisation and expressive cues but apply them in different proportions.

  • Gender equality in social and labor relations

    Author: Valentyna Kolesnyk
    E-mail: valentine.kolesnik07@gmail.com
    Institution: Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1994-9537
    Author: Galyna Tatarenko
    E-mail: gosik1@ukr.net
    Institution: Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University
    ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6291-4455
    Year of publication: 2021
    Source: Show
    Pages: 44-56
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/rop2021103
    PDF: rop/15/rop1504.pdf

    While reforming of the Ukrainian state, an important part of ensuring the social process is gender issues, providing equal opportunities for self-realization of a person regardless of gender, age, nationality or social origin. In accordance with the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the world community in 2000, one of the priorities of international development and indicators of social and economic development is ensuring gender equality. The implementation of gender equality ideas contributes to the effective use of human potential and, consequently, to the expansion of human development opportunities. Studying the processes of creation and implementation of gender policy in public administration is one of the new areas of research at the current stage of state formation. Its relevance is due to the processes of democratization of the Ukrainian society and search for ways to increase the effectiveness of public policy concerning equal rights and opportunities for women and men. Nowadays it is paid considerable attention to gender equality aspects by many international organizations. Thus, the United Nations (UN) has developed a number of global Sustainable Development Goals (CDGs) for 2015-2030, which were approved in 2015 at the UN Summit on Sustainable Development and which now all countries are committed to. The fifth of the seventeen CDGs is to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. In 2017, the Government of Ukraine presented the “Sustainable Development Goals: Ukraine” national report, which addresses gender equality as an essential task. It is emphasized that in Ukraine it is necessary to create conditions for elimination of all women discrimination forms. In this regard the relevant objectives and basic indicators for their achievement have been identified. Despite the fact that the world pays more and more attention to research in the field of gender equality, in Ukraine this issue remains one of the marginal segments in the public administration science. Therefore a systematic study of the formation of a gender-balanced staff at local executive bodies is becoming important. It is the management staff of local executive bodies that is sharply criticized; its mistakes and misjudgments significantly affect the standard of living, the welfare of citizens of a particular administrative-territorial unit, and the image and authority of government and the state as a whole. In the article it is analyzed the principles and mechanisms of state gender policy in Ukraine in the social and labor area, in particular in the civil service, it is studied the latest changes in the legal framework on gender issues, and it is described the existing legal issues that slow the further development of gender integration in all spheres of public administration, it is developed proposals to improve gender policy legal framework at the current stage.

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