historical memory

  • Cultural War and Reinventing the Past in Poland and Hungary: The Politics of Historical Memory in East–Central Europe

    Author: Attila Ágh
    E-mail: attila.agh@chello.hu
    Institution: Corvinus University of Budapest (Hungary)
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 32-44
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2016003
    PDF: ppsy/45/ppsy2016003.pdf

    This paper has been based on three assumptions that have been widely discussed in the international political science: (1) there has been a decline of democracy in East–Central Europe (ECE) with the emergence of “velvet dictatorships”, (2) the velvet dictatorships rely on the soft power of media and communication rather on the hard power of state violence that has provoked “cultural wars“ and (3) the basic turning point is the transition from the former modernization narrative to the traditional narrative with “reinventing the past” and “reconceptualising modernity” through the reference to the historically given collective national identity by launching the “politics of historical memory”. The velvet dictatorships have been using and abusing the national history as an ideological drug to consolidate their power. The (social and national) populism and Euroscepticism are the basic twin terms to describe the soft power of the new (semi)authoritarian regimes. They are convertible, the two sides of the same coin, since they express the same divergence from the EU mainstream from inside and outside. Soft power means that the political contest in the new regimes has been transferred from the hard to the soft fields of politics as the fight between the confronting narratives. The victory of the traditionalist–nativist narrative carries also the message that the people are only passive “subjects” and not active citizens, so the field of politics has been extremely narrowed in the “new brave world” in ECE. 

  • 60 years of diplomatic relations between Poland and the People’s Republic of China – historical review

    Author: Marceli Burdelski
    Institution: University of Gdańsk (Poland)
    Year of publication: 2011
    Source: Show
    Pages: 211-237
    DOI Address: http://dx.doi.org/10.15804/ppsy2011012
    PDF: ppsy/40/ppsy2011012.pdf

    The diplomatic relations between Poland and China had been established before World War II. The new stage in the relations has started on October 7, 1949, when Poland oficially recognized the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which was declared on October 1, 1949. Therefore, in 2009, we had two anniversaries: the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of china and the 60th anniversary of establishing the diplomatic relations between Poland and PRC. This gives the opportunity to summarize mutual relations. Those 60 years have been filled with positive stories, which had significant influence on the development of bilateral relations. However, one can also find dificult, even tragic moments during the history of these two nations. Those uneasy moments had also direct impact on mutual relations.

  • Upadek Związku Radzieckiego w świetle rosyjskich podręczników do historii

    Author: Anna Kadykało
    Year of publication: 2017
    Source: Show
    Pages: 31-49
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/kie.2017.01.02
    PDF: kie/115/kie11502.pdf

    The aim of the article is to point out how in contemporary Russian school history textbooks the collapse of the Soviet Union and its consequences for Russia, Europe and the whole world are shown. By combining this information with public opinion polls, aimed at analyzing Russian attitude to this controversial period in history, an attempt was made to find an answer to the question of how in the cultural memory of Russians, transmitting the experience of the older generations to the younger, this groundbreaking change in the political system operates nowadays. The conducted analysis has shown that many Russian history textbooks present a balanced, unemotional picture of the process the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, there are also such textbooks, which include emotional negative opinions about the collapse of the Soviet superpower, considering this event as one of the most tragic moments in the history of the 20th century. The article cites excerpts from history textbooks for history, juxtaposing them with public opinion surveys (regarding the evaluation of the last CPSU Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev; an opinion about the possibility of avoiding the collapse of the USSR, the factors that cause the greatest sorrow for the state union). This juxtaposition has revealed that despite the passage of time, there is lack of one, acceptable to the general public version of events that took place a quarter of a century ago. Just as Russians evaluate events focused around the collapse of the USSR and its consequences differently, so authors of textbooks offer students interpretations of groundbreaking events very diverging from each other. Therefore, the article shows that the historical education of young Russians in relation to this specific period will be the sum of the family stories, reading textbook recommended by the teacher and teacher comments. This leads to the conclusion that the collapse of the USSR is an event affecting the cultural memory of Russians, though the evaluation of this period are still evolving.

  • POLITYCZNE ASPEKTY OBCHODÓW MILLENIUM W POLSCE W 1966 ROKU NA PRZYKŁADZIE GNIEZNA

    Author: MARIUSZ MENZ
    Year of publication: 2016
    Source: Show
    Pages: 239-252
    DOI Address: https://doi.org/10.15804/hso160111
    PDF: hso/10/hso1011.pdf

    The article presents the circumstances and the course of the celebrations of the Millennium of the Polish State in April 1966. It discusses unsuccessful attempts undertaken by communists to torpedo ing church ceremonies presided by Primate Stefan Wyszyński.

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